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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 BU288.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Ping Zhang

BU288 Chapter 5 – Theories of Work Motivation Week 5 Why Study Motivation? -Motivation has become even more important in contemporary organizations What is Motivation? -From an organization’s perspective, when we speak of a person as being motivated, we usually mean that the person works hard, keeps at his or her work and directs his or her behaviour toward appropriate outcomes Basic Characteristics of Motivation -Motivation – the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Effort -The strength of the person’s work-related behaviour, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job Persistence -The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks -The researcher who makes an important discovery early in her career and then rests on her laurels for five years would not be considered highly motivated Direction -Do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization? -Motivation means working smart as well as working hard Goals -All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed -Ex. Employee goals might include high productivity, good attendance, or creative decisions Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation -Some hold the view that people are motivated by factors in the external environment, while others believe that people can be self-motivated without the application of these external factors -Intrinsic motivation – motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied. Ex. Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, etc. -Extrinsic motivation – motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others. Ex. Pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision -Employers cannot package all conceivable motivators as neatly as these definitions suggest. Thus some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities -Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are used in self-determination theory – a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled -Autonomous motivation – when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors -Controlled motivation – when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward -Some research studies have reached the conclusion that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself BU288 Chapter 5 – Theories of Work Motivation Week 5 Motivation and Performance -Performance – the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization -While motivation contributes to performance, the relationship is not one-to-one -Two forms of intelligence that are particularly important for performance are general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence -Factors contributing to individual job performance: personality, general cognitive ability, task understanding, emotional intelligence, chance General Cognitive Ability -The term cognitive ability is often used to refer to what most people call intelligence or mental ability -General cognitive ability – a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources -Reflects an individual’s overall capacity and efficiency for processing information, and it includes a number of cognitive abilities, such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities, that are required to perform mental tasks -Predicts learning and training successes as well as job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations with both mental and manual tasks Emotional Intelligence -Emotional intelligence – the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions -Individuals high in EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking, and action -Peter Salovey and John Mayer created an EI mode with four interrelated sets of skills: 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals -EI predicts performance in a number of areas – including job and academic performance The Motivation-Performance Relationship -It is possible for performance to be low even when a person is highly motivated -Poor performance cold also be due to a poor understanding of the task or luck and chance factors that can damage the performance of the most highly motivated individuals -An individual with greater marginal motivation might have high general cognitive ability or emotional intelligence or might understand the task so well that some compensation occurs – what little effort the individual makes is expended very efficiently in terms of goal accomplishment -We cannot consider motivation in isolation – High motivation will not result in high performance if employees have low general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence, do not understand their jobs, or encounter unavoidable obstacles over which they have no control Need Theories of Work Motivation -Need theories – motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance -Needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals can satisfy by acquiring certain incentives or achieving particular goals BU288 Chapter 5 – Theories of Work Motivation Week 5 NEEDS  BEHAVIOUR  INCENTIVES AND GOALS Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs -Abraham Maslow developed and refined a general theory of human motivation -Humans have five sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy, beginning with the most basic and compelling needs: 1. Physiological needs – needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive. Ex. Food. Organizational factors include minimum pay necessary for survival 2. Safety needs – needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structures and ordered environment. Organizational factors include safe working conditions 3. Belongingness needs – needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship, friendship Organizational factors include friendly and supportive supervision, and opportunity for teamwork 4. Esteem needs – needs for feeling of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, and confidence. Organizational factors include the opportunity to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement and responsibility 5. Self-actualization needs – involve the desire to develop one’s true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express one’s kills, talents, and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling. Organizational factors include absorbing jobs with the potential for creativity and growth as well as a relaxation of structure to permit self-development and personal progression -When needs at a particular level are satisfied, the individual turns his or her attention to the next higher level -A satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator Alderfer’s ERG Theory -Clayton Alderfer -ERG Theory – a three level hierarchical need theory of motivation(Existence, relatedness, growth) that allows or movement up and down the hierarchy 1. Existence needs - needs satisfied by some material substance or condition. Ex. Food, shelter, pay, safe working conditions 2. Relatedness needs – needs satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members. Satisfied by open, accurate, honest interaction 3. Growth needs – needs fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting. -As lower-level needs are satisfied, the desire to have higher-level needs satisfied will increase -We can identify ERG’s two major motivational premises as follows: 1. The more lower-level needs are gratified, the more higher-level need satisfaction is desired 2. The less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level need satisfaction is desired McClelland’s Theory of Needs -McClelland’s Theory of Needs – a non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation -He is concerned with the specific behavioural consequences of needs -Studied need for achievement, affiliation, and power -Need for achievement – a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well -Individuals high in need for achievement exhibit the following characteristics, a preference for BU288 Chapter 5 – Theories of Work Motivation Week 5 situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes, a tendency to set mo
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