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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 BU288.docx

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Ping Zhang

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BU288 Chapter 6 – Motivation in Practice Week 6 Job Design as a Motivator -Using job design as a motivator represent an attempt to capitalize on intrinsic motivation -The goal of job design is to identify the characteristics that make some tasks more motivating than others and to capture these characteristics in the design of jobs -Many workers are motived more by stimulating, challenging, and meaningful work Traditional Views of Job Design -Up until 1960, the design of most jobs was job simplification -The preindustrial period was characterized by increasing urbanization and the growth of a free market economy , which prompted a demand for manufactured goods -With complex machinery and an uneducated, untrained workforce, organizations recognized that specialization was the key to efficient productivity -If the production of an object could be broken down into very basic, simple steps, even an uneducated and minimally trained worker could contribute his or her share by mastering one of these steps -Jobs designed in accordance with scientific management do not seem intrinsically motivating -The motivational strategies that management used during this period consisted of close supervision and the use of piece-rate ay -Job simplification helped people achieve a reasonable standard of living Job Scope and Motivation -Job scope – the breadth and depth of a job -Breadth – the number of different activities performed on a job -Depth – the degree of discretion or control a worker has over how work tasks are performed -Broad jobs require workers to do a number of tasks, while deep jobs emphasize freedom in planning how to do the work -Jobs that have a great breadth and depth are called high scope jobs -Ex. A prof is a high scope job -Ex. Management jobs are high-scope jobs – managers perform a variety of activities and have some discretion over how they accomplish these activities -Ex. Assembly line jobs are low-scope jobs -We encounter jobs that have high breadth and little depth, or vice versa. For motivational purposes, these jobs are relatively low in scope. Ex. An assembly line worker who fills in for absent workers at various parts in the line -Some jobs involve a fair amount of discretion over a single, narrowly defined task – Ex. Quality control inspectors -High-scope jobs should provide more intrinsic motivation than low-scope jobs -Expectancy theory suggests that high-scope jobs can provide intrinsic motivation if the outcomes derived from such jobs are attractive -To increase the scope of a job, assign employees stretch assignments – offer employees challenging opportunities to broaden their skills by working on a variety f tasks with new responsibilities -To increase the scope of a job, job rotation is also effective -Job rotation – rotating employees to different tasks and jobs in an organization -Job rotation is also effective for developing new skills and expertise that an prepare employees for future roles BU288 Chapter 6 – Motivation in Practice Week 6 The Job Characteristics Model Core Job Characteristics -Skill variety – the opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talent -Autonomy – the freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work procedures -Task significance – the impact that a job has on other people -Task Identity – the extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from beginning to end -Freedom – information about the effectiveness of one’s work performance Examples: 1. Skill Variety High variety: the owner of a garage who does electrical repair, rebuilds engines, does body work, and interacts with customers Low variety: a body shop worker who spray paints 8 hours a day 2. Task Identity High variety: a cabinet maker who designs a piece o furniture, selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection Low identity: a worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe solely to make table legs 3. Task Significance High significance: nursing the sick in a hospital ICU Low significance: sweeping hospital floors 4. Autonomy High autonomy: a telephone installer who schedules his or her own work for the day, makes visits without supervision, and decides on the most effective techniques for a particular installation Low autonomy: a telephone operator who must handle calls as they come according to a routine, highly specified procedure 5. Job Feedback High feedback: an electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then tests it to determine if it operates properly Low feedback: an electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then routes it to a quality control inspector who tests it for proper operation and makes needed adjustments BU288 Chapter 6 – Motivation in Practice Week 6 -A questionnaire was developed called the Job Diagnostic Survey(JDS) to measure the core characteristics of jobs -An overall measure of the motivating potential of a job can be calculated by the following formula: Motivating potential score=Skill variety + Task identity + Task significance x Autonomy x Job Feedback 3 Critical Psychological States -Work will be intrinsically motivating when it is perceived as meaningful, when the worker feels responsible for the outcomes of work, and when the worker has knowledge about his or her work progress -When a person has autonomy to organize and perform the job as he or she sees fit, the person feels personally responsible for the outcome of the work Outcomes -The presence of the critical psychological states leads to a number of outcomes that are relevant to both the individual and the organization -The relationship between the work and the worker is emphasized, and the worker is able to draw motivation from the job itself -Workers will report satisfaction with higher-order needs and general satisfaction with the job itself – this should lead to reduced absenteeism and turnover Moderators -Jobs that are high in motivating potential do not always lead to favourable outcomes -Workers with weak knowledge and skills should not respond favourably to jobs that are high in motivating potential, since such jobs will prove too demanding -Growth need strength – the extent to which people desire to achieve higher-order need satisfaction by performing their jobs -Those with high growth needs should be most responsive to challenging work -Workers who are dissatisfied with the context factors surrounding the job will be less responsive to challenging work than those who are reasonably satisfied with context factors Job Enrichment -Job enrichment – the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvement -Job involvement a cognitive state of psychological identification with one’s job and the importance of work to one’s total self-image -Employees who have challenging and enriched jobs tend to have higher levels of job involvement -All core job characteristics are positively related to job involvement -Employees who are more involved in their job have higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment and are less likely to consider leaving their organization -Job enrichment involved increasing the motivating potential of jobs via the arrangement of their core characteristics -Job enrichment schemes: -Combining tasks - involves assigning tasks that might be performed by different workers to a single individual. Should increase the variety of skills employed and might contribute to
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