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Research in Organizational Behaviour BU288.docx

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BU288 Research in Organizational Behaviour Week 1 -Research is a way of finding out about the world through objective and systematic information gathering -Evidence based management – translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices -The use of evidence based management is more likely to result in the attainment of organizational goals including those affecting employees, stockholders, and the public in general The Basics of Organizational Behaviour Research -Hypothesis – a formal statement of eh expected relationship between the two variables -Variables – measures that can take on two or more values – Ex. Temperature -Here, a variable with two values, bonus versus no bonus, is related to one that can take on many values, days of absenteeism Types of Variables -Independent variable – the variable that predicts or is the cause of variation in a dependent variable -Dependent variable – the variable that is expected to vary as a result of changes to the independent variable -Ex. Pay fairness is the independent variable and resigning is the dependent variable -Moderating variable – a variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable such that the relationship depends on the level of the moderating variable -Moderating variables are like contingency variables in that they indicate when an independent variable is most likely to be related to a dependent variable -Ex. A moderating variable might be pay satisfaction -Mediating variable – a variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable -Ex. Bonus increases people’s motivation to come to work Measurement of Variables -A measure should exhibit high reliability -Reliability – an index of the consistency of a research subject’s responses -Measures should exhibit high validity -Validity – an index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is supposed to measure -Good measures should also be strongly related to other measures of the same variable and should not be related to measures of different variables -Convergent validity – when there is a strong relationship between different measures of the same variable -Discriminant validity – when there is a weak relationship between measures of different variables Observational Techniques -Observational research - research that examines the natural activities of people in an organizational setting by listening to what they say and watching what they do -First, the researcher approaches the organizational setting with extensive training concerning the nature of human behaviour and a particular set o questions that the observation is designed to answer -Second, the behavioural scientist attempts to keep a careful ongoing record of the events that he or she observes, either as they occur or as soon as possible afterward -Finally, the behavioural scientist is well informed of the dangers of influencing the behaviour of those BU288 Research in Organizational Behaviour Week 1 whom he or she is observing and is trained to draw reasonable conclusions from his or her observation Participant Observation -Participant observation – the researcher becomes a functioning member of the organizational unit being studied -An advantage is that it has potential for secrecy Direct Observation -Direct observation – the researcher observes organizational behaviour without taking par
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