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Chapter 6

BU288 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Computer Network, Performance Appraisal, Voicemail


Department
Business
Course Code
BU288
Professor
Greg Irving
Chapter
6

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BU288 Chapter 6: Motivation in Practice (pg. 200-216)
Job Design as a Motivator
-Job Design: Structure, content, and configuration of a person’s work tasks and roles
-Identify characteristics that make some tasks more motivating than others and to capture those
characteristics in the design of jobs
Traditional Views of Job Design
-Historical roots of job simplification found in social, economic, and technological forces that
existed even before Industrial Revolution
-Preindustrial period: Increasing urbanization and growth of free market economy – prompted
demand for manufactured goods
-Specialization was key to efficient productivity
-Motivational strategies that management used during this period consisted of close supervision
and use of piece-rate pay
Job Scope and Motivation
-Job Scope: Breadth and depth of a job
-Breadth: Number of different activities performed on a job
-Depth: Degree of discretion or control a worker has over how work tasks are performed
-Broad jobs require workers to do a number of different tasks, while deep job emphasize freedom
in planning how to do the work
-Motivational theories suggest that high-scope jobs (both broad and deep) should provide more
intrinsic motivation than low-scope jobs
Maslow’s need hierarchy and ERG theory both indicate that people can fulfill higher-
order needs by opportunity to perform high-scope jobs
Expectancy theory suggests that high-scope jobs provide intrinsic motivation if outcomes
derived from jobs are attractive
-Stretch Assignments: Offer employees challenging opportunities to broaden their skills by
working on a variety of tasks with new responsibilities
-Job Rotation: Rotating employees to different tasks and jobs in an organization
Provides employees with variety of challenging assignments
Effective for developing new skills and expertise that can prepare employees for future
roles
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The Job Characteristics Model
Core Job Characteristics
-5 core job characteristics with strong potential to affect worker motivation
-Higher level leads to favourable outcomes
1. Skill Variety: Opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talents
Corresponds with job breadth
2. Autonomy: Freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work procedures
Corresponds with job depth
3. Task Significance: Impact that a job has on other people
4. Task Identity: Extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from
beginning to end
5. Feedback: Information about the effectiveness of one’s work performance
-Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) by Hackman and Oldham measures core characteristics of jobs
Requires job holders to report amount of various core characteristics contained in their
jobs  then construct profiles to compare motivational properties of various jobs
Critical Psychological States
-Work will be intrinsically motivating when worker:
Experienced meaningfulness of work
Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work
Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
-Job Characteristics Model proposes that core job characteristics affect meaningfulness,
responsibility, and knowledge of results in systematic manner
Outcomes
-Presence of critical psychological states leads to number of outcomes that are relevant to
individual and organization
-High internal work motivation  High “growth” satisfaction  High general job satisfaction 
High work effectiveness
Moderators
1. Knowledge and Skill
Workers with weak knowledge and skills shouldn’t respond favourably to jobs that are
high in motivating potential, since jobs will be too demanding
2. Growth Need Strength
Growth Need Strength: Extent to which people desire to achieve higher-order need
satisfaction by performing their jobs
Those with high growth needs are most responsive to challenging work
3. “Context” Satisfaction
Dissatisfied with context factors surrounding job = less responsive to challenging work
Research Evidence
-Ask workers to describe their jobs by means of JDS and measure their reactions to jobs
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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