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Chapter 9


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Lawrence Murphy

CHAPTER 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing Psychological Test- is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour - used to measure the individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality - a particular behaviour sample may not be representative of your characteristic behaviour: limitation 2 Types of Psychological Tests… 1. Mental Ability Tests: include three principal categories… - Intelligence Tests- measure general mental ability; intended to assess intellectual potential - Attitude Tests- assess specific types of mental abilities; measure potential more than knowledge - Achievement Tests- gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects; measure previous learning instead of potential 2. Personality Tests: measure various aspects of personality (motives, interests, values, attitudes) - traits that can be assessed, and have right and wrong answers Standardization- refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test …includes the development of test norms. - Test norms- provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test - tell you how you score, relative to other people - Percentile score- indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained raw score  % percentile score Reliability- refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or other kinds of measurement techniques)  Consistency + accuracy  Test-retest reliability: subjects to take the test on two occasions; changes = inconsistency Correlation coefficient: is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables - positive = similar scores - the magnitude of the correlation gives us a precise indication of the test’s consistency  the closer the number comes to + 1.00 the more reliable  the higher, the more consistent Validity- refers to the ability of a test to measure that it was designed to measure; the accuracy or usefulness of the inferences or decisions based on a test Content Validity- refers to the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s supposed to cover Criterion-related validity- is estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test Construct validity- the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct - examines the correlation between the test and various measures related to the trait in question - the overall pattern of correlations provide convincing evidence of a test’s construct validity History of Psychological Tests… Francis Galton: - studied family trees and found that success and eminence appeared consistently in some families over generations - intelligence is governed by heredity - “nature-versus-nurture”  refer to the heredity-environment issue - invented the concepts of correlation and percentile scores Alfred Binet: - was asked to devise a test to identify mentally subnormal children (France education) - Mental age- indicated that he or she displayed the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age  expressed a child’s score in terms of mental age Terman: - Expanded on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, to develop a new scoring system based on the… Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = Mental age x 100 Chronological age - originally, you can see that IQ scores were actual equations - ratio  mental age : chronological age Wechsler: - set out to improve on the measurement of intelligence in adults - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: characterized by at least 2 major innovations… 1. Made his scales less dependent on subjects’ verbal ability 2. Discarded the IQ in favour of a new scoring scheme based on the normal distribution The Basic Principles underlying intelligence testing: - variations depend on whether the test is intended for children or adults (or both) and whether its for individuals or groups - Normal Distribution- a symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population o When a trait is normally distributed, most cases fall near the centre of the distribution (average score) - Deviation IQ- locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measure (what raw scores are translated to) o Places you at a specific point on the normal distribution of intelligence - Mean of distribution = 100 - Standard Deviation (SD) = 15  score 115 … person is exactly one SD (15 points) above the mean - Modern IQ scores indicate exactly where you fall in the normal distribution of intelligence - IQ tests blend a measure of potential and knowledge (intelligence tests are just potential) - IQ tests assess: verbal, practical and social intelligence - Ingredients of intelligence are culture-specific Levels of Intelligence: - Low end = IQ scores roughly + 2 SD below the mean - High end (gifted) = IQ scores 2 or 3 SD above the mean - Mental Retardation- refers to sub-average general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18. There are 4 levels… o Mild (51-70) o Severe (35 – 20) o Moderate (36 – 50) o Profound (below 20) o Down Syndrome- a condition marked by distinctive physical characteristics that is associated with mild to sever retardation - minimum IQ scores for gifted programs usually falls somewhere around 130 - gifted children are usually stereotyped as nerds, bookworms, etc - Joseph Renzulli: theorized that high intelligence alone does not usually foster genuine greatness (intelligence + creativity + motivation) - Drudge Theory- eminence primarily or entirely depends on dogged determination; endless te
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