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Chapter 10


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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lawrence Murphy

CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion Motivation- relates to the study of the processes involved in goal-directed behaviour  specific emotions - motives- are the needs, wants, interests, and the desires that propel people in certain directions The Theoretical Approaches to Motivation… Drive Theories: Walter Cannon - Homeostasis- a state of physiological equilibrium or stability o The body reacts to many disturbances in physiological stability by trying to restore equilibrium - Drive- an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension o Disruptions in the preferred equilibrium - Example) The hunger motive: this internal tension/drive (hunger) motivates you to obtain food Incentive Theories: - propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states - Incentive- is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour - Push-versus-pull theories… o Internal stimuli PUSH people in certain directions o External stimuli PULL people in certain directions - Incentive theories emphasize environmental factors and downplay the biological basis of human motivation - Expectancy-Value Model… o Expectancy- about ones chances of attaining the incentive o Value- the desired incentive Evolutionary Theories: - human motives and those of other species are the products of evolution - natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive success  passing genes to the next generation - motives can be best understood in terms of the adaptive problems they have solved for our hunter- gatherer ancestors THE MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING Hunger- is deceptive; it is a complex motivational system Cannon Washburn: There is an association between stomach contractions and the experiences of hunger - stomach contractions accompany hunger - This realization led to more elaborate theories of hunger that focus on… I. Brain Regulation - hypothalamus- is a tiny structure involved in the regulation of biological needs related to survival o lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus are the brains “on-off” switches for the control of hunger - regulate eating by monitoring a diverse array of physiological processes II. Glucose and Digestive Regulation - Glucose- a simple sugar that is an important source of energy - Glucostatic Theory: proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by the glucostats - Glucostats- neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid III. Hormonal Regulation - Insulin- a hormone secreted by the pancreas; it must be present for cells to extract glucose from the blood - Leptin- produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into blood  provides the hypothalamus with info about the body’s fat stores Environmental Factors: 3 Key Environmental factors are… 1. Food availability and related cues - Often motivated to eat NOT by the need to compensate for energy deficit, but by the anticipated pleasure of eating - Environmental cues associated with hunger can cause hunger - Social cues based on the behaviour of others can cause hunger 2. Learned preferences and habits - preferences are acquired through learning - people from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption - taste preferences are partly a function of learned associations  classical conditioning - young children are more likely to taste an unfamiliar food if they see an adult try it first  observational learning 3. Stress and eating - stress leads to increased eating in a substantial portion of people - stress-induced physiological arousal stimulates eating - negative emotions often evoked by stress, promote additional eating The Roots of Obesity According to evolutionary-oriented researchers… - in history, people have lived in environments in which there was fierce competition for limited, unreliable food resources and where starvation was a very real threat - when they got the chance, people would consume more food than necessary because of the uncertainty for availability  excess calories stored (body fat) - today, human’s evolved tendency to overeat when food is plentiful, leads most people to chronic, excessive food consumption  obesity Set-point Theory: proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable - set-point- is a natural point of stability in body weight Settling-point Theory: proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieves equilibrium - weight tends to remain stable as long as there are no durable changes in any factors influencing it Dietary Restraint: consist of people who consciously work overtime to control their eating impulses and who feel guilty when they fail  lead to frequent overeating  obesity SEXUAL MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR Sex is essential for the survival of species, but its not essential to an individual’s survival - sexual motivation if not driven by deprivation to the extent that hunger is Factors that influence our sexual behaviour are… 1. Hormonal Regulation - Gonads: sexual reproductive organs in males and females (ovaries and testes) which contain these hormones: o Estrogens- females o Androgens- males (relate to sexual motivation in both sexes) - Contribute to the modulation of sexual desire in humans - Hormonal fluctuations probably have a small impact on sexual desire in humans 2. Erotic Materials - the balance of evidence suggests that exposure to erotic materials elevates the likelihood of overt sexual activity for a few hours immediately after the exposure - may alter attitudes in ways that eventually influence sexual behaviour - aggressive behaviour toward women (ex. Date rape) Evolutionary Analysis of human behaviour… Parental Investment Theory: maintains that species’ mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest to produce and nurture offspring (in terms of times, energy and survival risk) - females can optimize their reproductive potential by being selective in mating - males are thought to compete with other males for the relatively scarce and valuable “commodity” of reproductive opportunities - When determining a long term mate… o Males  females = good reproductive potential; sexually faithful; nurturing to children (Youthfulness and attractiveness) o Females  males = provide material resources; protect the family; dependable and willing (Status and financial prospects) - sex is not looked at in terms of maximizing reproductive potential, but as subconscious preferences that have been hardwired into the human brain by evolutionary forces Sexual orientation- refers to a person’s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex or either sex - heterosexual = opposite sex - homosexual = same sex o can be viewed as endpoints on a continuum: 7 point scale used to characterize individuals sexual orientation (Kins
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