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Chapter 6

HR Chapter 6.doc

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Steve Risavy

Chapter 6: Selection Selection • process of choosing between individuals: o with relevant qualifications o for existing or projected job openings • important because: o quality of human resources determines organizational performance o high cost of inappropriate selection decisions o significant legal implications • two-way process of you selecting the company and the company selecting you • your performance is dependant on how you select your fist employee – how you are selecting them, the process that you go through etc • the successful candidates must fit with the strategic direction of the organization • when poor selection is made the “hidden” costs are frequently even higher, including internal disorganization and disruption, and customer alienation • organizations required by law to implement an employment equity plan must ensure that all their employment systems, including selection, are bias-free and do not have an adverse impact on members of the four designated groups (women, aboriginals, minorities and person with disabilities) • another legal implication is employer liability to negligent or wrongful hiring • the emerging labour supply shortage in Canada will result in increasingly small selection ratios o that is a the ratio of the number of applicants hired to the total number of applicants available The Selection Process • it’s a multiple-hurdle strategy –which is an approach involves a series of successive steps or hurdles –only candidates clearing the hurdles are allowed to move onto the next step • the types of selection instruments and screening devices used are also not standardized across organizations 1. Preliminary step: initial applicant screening 2. Selecting testing 3. Selection interview 4. Background investigation/reference checking 5. Supervisory interviews and realistic job preview 6. Hiring decision 7. Candidate notification • -its easy to skip some steps, in desperation to hire someone quickly • -in order to get the best talent you have to proceed through each step Guidelines for Avoiding Legal Problems • selection criteria based on the job • adequate assessment of applicant ability • careful scrutiny of applicant-provided information • written authority for reference checking • save all records and information • reject applicants who make false statements • make sure that is based on the job description and assessment • KSA à everything goes back to knowledge, skills and abilities • it has been known for people to lie in their cover letters and resumes (most times these people do get away with it and the company might not be getting who they think they are getting) • if references are checked and the individual is not hired, they can sue for illegal reference checking Step 1: Applicant Screening • first contact often through the Web • application forms and resumes are reviewed and those candidates not meeting the essential selection criteria are eliminated first • screening eliminates candidates not meeting “must have” criteria • candidates closely matching remaining job specifications considered further • you have once to make a first impression (cover letter – make sure that it fits the job that you are applying to) Step 2: Selection Testing Guidelines: • use tests as supplements to other techniques • validate tests where they will be used • use a certified psychologist • provide appropriate testing conditions • candidates cannot prepare for personality tests • provides a better understanding of the candidates in related settings • tests general intelligence, personality characteristics, mental abilities, interest and preferences The Importance of Reliability and Validity • Validity: o accuracy with which predictor measures what it is intended to measure o separate validation studies of selection techniques should be conducted for different subgroups, such as visible minorities and women, to assess differential validity • Reliability: o degree to which selection procedures yield comparable data over time o the degree of dependability, consistency or stability of the measures used o also refers to the extent which two ro more methods yield the same results or are consistent o reliability – on-going basis shows how intelligent that person is and that they are capable for doing a good job o it is diminished when questions are answered randomly, the test setting is noisy or uncomfortable, and when the applicant is tired or unwell Types of Validity • Criterion-Related Validity: o extent results predict/significantly correlate with work behaviour o work behaviour, its valid, fits the criteria • Content Validity: o extent adequately samples job skills/knowledge needed to perform the job o looking at capabilities o the closer the content of selection instrument is to actual samples of work or work behaviour, the greater the content validity • Construct Validity: o extent results measure job-required trait – a specific trait deemed necessary to perform the job successfully  examples are intelligence, verbal skills, leadership skills etc. o tendency for you to act in a certain way Types of Tests Used in Selection • cognitive tests (can’t prepare) o intelligence  Intelligence (IQ) tests are tests of general intellectual abilities – they measure not one trait but a number of abilities including memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numerical ability o emotional intelligence  Emotional (EI) tests measure ability to monitor ones own emotions and the emotions of others and use that knowledge to guide thoughts and actions  Many people believe EI tests are a more important determinant of success than a high IQ o Aptitude  Measures of specific thinking skills, such as inductive and deductive reasoning, verbal comprehension, memory and numerical ability  A test of the applicants potential to perform the job once given proper training • motor/physical abilities o Test ability to actually do the job o Include finger dexterity, manual dexterity, speed of arm movement and reaction time o Tests of physical ability may also be required o Important to make sure that the tests duplicate the actual physical requirements of the job • personality and interests o persons motivation and interpersonal skills are important o personality tests measure basic aspects of an applicants personality, such as introversion, stability and motivation –assume that its possible to find a relationship between a measurable personality trait and success on the job o in a thematic apperception test individuals are to look at a picture which has no meaning and discuss what they think is occurring – he or she supposedly projects into the picture his or her own emotional attitudes about life o studies show that that personality tests can help companies hire more effective workers o interest inventories compare a candidates interest with those of people in carious occupation  if a firm can select people whose interests are roughly the same as those of high-performing incumbents in the job for which it is hiring, the new employees are more likely to be successful • achievement tests o a measure of what a person has learned o they measure knowledge and proficiencies in areas such as economics, marketing or HRM • work sampling o they measure job performance directly and thus are among the best predictors of job performance o experts first list all the possible tasks that jobholders would be required to perform, then list the frequency of performance and relative importance of each task in which key tasks are defined, each applicant then performs the key tasks being monitored by a test administrator • assessment centers o a strategy used to asses candidates management potential that uses a combination of realistic exercises, management games, objective testing, presentation and interviews o examples are: in-basket exercise, a leaderless group discussion, management games, individual presentations, and an interview • situational tests o candidates are presented with hypothetical situations representative of the job for which they are applying and are evaluated on their responses o they provide a realistic job preview by exposing candidates to the types of activities that they will encounter on the job o validity of the situational test is predicting overall job performance as well as three performance dimensions: core technical proficiency, job dedication and interpersonal facilitation • micro-assessment o an entirely performance-based testing strategy that focuses on individual performance o participants are required to solve a set of work-related problems that demonstrate their ability to perform well within the confines of a certain department or corporate culture • physical exams o the use of medical examinations have decreased due to the loss of physically demanding manufacturing and natural resource jobs o three main reasons why a firm may include a medical examination in the selection process (1) to determine that the applicant qualifies for the physical environment of the potion and to make any accommodations (2) to establish a record and baseline of the applicants health for the purpose of future insurance or compensation claims and (3) to reduce absenteeism and accidents by identifying any health issues or concerns o drug testing Substance Abuse Testing • pre-employment screening for substance abuse not permitted in Canada • alcohol and drug addiction considered a handicap and cannot be used to discriminate between applicants • you cant ask someone to do a test unless you have offered them a job • employer has to make accommodation for individuals with drug/alcohol addiction Step 3: Selection Interview • the selection interview is procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants oral responses to oral inquiries o involves a two-way communication betwe
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