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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 BU354.docx

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John Coffey

BU354 Chapter 8 – Orientation and Training Week 6 -Orientation refers to a long-term, continuous socialization process in which employee and employer expectations or obligations are considered -Orientation attempts to transfer learning into behaviour used disciplined, consistent efforts -Training refers to short-term, discrete efforts in which organizations impart information and instructions in an effort to help the recipient fain the required skills or knowledge to perform the job at adequate levels Orienting Employees -Once employees have been recruited and selected, the next step is orienting them to their new company and their new job Purpose of Orientation Programs -Employee orientation (onboarding)- a procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm and the job -Socialization- the ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values, and patterns of behaviour that are expected by the organization -During the time required for socialization to occur, a new employee is less than fully productive -Orientation helps the employee perform better by providing necessary information about company rules and practices -Reality shock (cognitive dissonance) – the state that results from the discrepancy between what the new employee expected from his or her new job and the realities of it -An important part of any effective orientation program is sitting down and deciding on work-related goals with the new employee -Orientation is the first step in helping the new employee manage the learning curve; it helps new employees become productive more quickly that they might otherwise -Some organizations commence orientation activity before the first day of employment -Online onboarding systems that can be provided to new employees as soon as they accept the job offer are increasingly being used to engage employees as soon as they accept the job offer are increasingly being used to engage employees more quickly and accelerate employee performance -Online onboarding provides strategic benefits starting with building the brand as an employer of choice Content of Orientation Programs -In lengthy formal programs, the new employee is usually given: -Internal publications -Facility tour and staff introductions -Job-related documents -Expected training to be received – when and why -Performance appraisal criteria, including the estimated time to achieve full productivity -Some courts have found employee handbook contents to represent a contract with the employee Responsibility for Orientation -The first day of orientation usually starts with the HR specialist, who explains such matters as working hours and vacation -The employee is then introduced to his or her new supervisor, who continues the orientation by explaining the exact nature of the job, introducing the person to his or her colleagues, and familiarizing the new employee with the workplace -HR should follow up with each new employee about three months after the initial orientation to address any remaining questions BU354 Chapter 8 – Orientation and Training Week 6 Special Orientation Situations Diverse Workforce -In an organization that has not had a diverse workforce in the past, orienting new employees from different backgrounds poses a special challenge -New employees should be given a warning about receiving a variety of reactions from current employees to someone from a different background and they should be given tips about how to deal with these reactions Mergers and Acquisitions -Employees of a newly merged company need to receive information about the details of the merger or acquisition as part of the information on company history Union vs. Non-union employees -New employees in unionized positions need to be provided with a copy of the collective bargaining agreement and be told which information relates specifically to their particular job Multi-Location Organizations -New employees in a multi-location company need to be made aware of where the other locations are and what business functions are performed in each location Problems with Orientation Programs -Often too much information is provided in a short time and the new employee is overwhelmed -New employees end up with an abundance of forms to fill out -Employees must personally seek answers to questions that arise sometimes -Sometimes orientation is too broad to be meaningful to a new employee Evaluation of Orientation Programs 1. Employee reaction – interview or survey new employees for their opinion on the usefulness of the orientation program 2. Socialization effects – review new employees at regular intervals to assess progress toward understanding and acceptance of the beliefs, values, and norms of the organization 3. Cost/benefit analysis – compare orientation costs and benefits of orientation Executive Integration -Newly hired or promoted executives typically do not participate in formal orientation activities, and there is little planning regarding how they will be integrated into their new position and company -Executive integration is of critical important to a productive relationship between a new executive and their organization -Key aspects of this process include: -Identifying position specifications -Providing realistic information to job candidates and providing support regarding reality shock -Assessing each candidate’s previous record at making organizational transitions -Announcing the hiring with enthusiasm -Stressing the importance of listening as well as demonstrating competency, and promoting more time spent talking with the boss -Assisting new executives who are balancing their work to change cultural norms while they themselves are part of the culture itself BU354 Chapter 8 – Orientation and Training Week 6 The Training Process -Training- the process of teaching employees the basic skills/competencies that they need to perform their jobs -Ensure that business and training goals are aligned -Training is moving to centre stage as a necessity for improving employers’ competitiveness -Training can strengthen employee commitment Training and Learning -To train employees it is useful to know how people learn -People have three main learning styles: auditory, visual, kinesthetic -Auditory is learning through talking and listening -Visual is learning through pictures and print -Kinesthetic is tactile learning through a whole-body experience -Information should be meaningful so trainees can remember the information -Make sure it is easy to transfer new skills and behaviours from the training site to the job site -Motivate the trainee -Effectively prepare the trainee Legal Aspects of Training -Negligent training- occurs when an employer fails to adequately train an employee who subsequently harms a third party -Employees who are dismissed for poor performance or disciplined for safety infractions may claim that the employer was negligent in that the employee’s training was inadequate The Five-Step Training Process 1. Needs analysis 2. Instructional Design 3. Validation 4. Implementation 5. Evaluation and Follow-up Step 1: Training Needs Analysis -Determine what training is required -Determine what the job entails and break it down into subtasks and then teach it to the new employee -Task analysis – a detailed study of a job to identify the skills and competencies it requires so that an appropriate training program can be instituted -Performance analysis – verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through training or through some other means (such as transferring the employee) -Other techniques to identify training needs include supervisor’s reports, HR records, management requests, observations, tests of job knowledge, and questionnaire surveys Task Analysis: Assessing the Training Needs of New Employees -Task analysis is used for determining the training needs of employees who are new to their jobs -The job description and job specifications are helpful here Task Analysis Record Form 1. Column 1, Task lisk 2. Column 2, When and how often performed 3. Column 3, Quantity and quality of performance – described in measurable terms BU354 Chapter 8 – Orientation and Training Week 6 4. Column 4, Conditions under which performed 5. Column 5, Competencies and specific knowledge required 6. Column 6, Where best learned -To see a visual see Table 8.1 on p. 220 Performance Analysis: Determining the Training Needs of Current Employees -Performance analysis means verifying whether there is a significant performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through training or some other means -Distinguishing between can’t do and won’t do problems is at the heart of performance analysis -If employees could do a job if they wanted to then the reward system should be changed, perhaps by implementing an incentive program Training Objectives -Once training needs have been identified, training o
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