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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 BU354.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
John Coffey

BU354 Chapter 4 – Designing and Analyzing Jobs Week 3 Fundamentals of Job Analysis -Job analysis is a process by which information about jobs is systematically fathered and organized -Job – a group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of incumbents -Position – the collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person Uses of Job Analysis Information -Job analysis – the procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform it -Once this information is fathered it is used for developing job descriptions and job specifications Human Resources Planning -Knowing the actual requirements of an organization’s various jobs is essential for planning future staffing needs Recruitment and Selection -The job description and job specification information should be used to decide what sort of person to recruit and hire Compensation -Job analysis information is also essential for determining the relative value of and appropriate compensation for each job -Job evaluation should be based on the required skills, physical and mental demands, responsibilities, and working conditions – all assessed through job analysis Performance Management -The criteria used to assess employee performance must be directly related to the duties and responsibilities identified through job analysis Labour Relations -Such union-approved job descriptions then become the basis for classifying jobs and bargaining over wages, performance criteria, and working conditions Training, Development, and Career Management -By comparing the knowledge, skills, and abilities that employees bring to the job with those that are identified by job analysis, managers can determine gaps that require training programs Restructuring -Job analysis is useful for ensuring that all of the duties that need to be done have actually been assigned and for identifying areas of overlap within duties -Having an accurate description of each job may lead to the identification of unnecessary requirements, areas of conflict or dissatisfaction, or health and safety concerns that can be eliminated through job redesign or restructuring Steps in Job Analysis 1. Relevant organizational information is reviewed 2. Jobs are selected to be analyzed 3. Using one or more job analysis techniques, data are collected on job activities 4. The information collected in Step 3 is then verified and modified, if required 5. Job descriptions and specifications are developed based on the verified information 6. The information is then communicated and updated on an as-needed basis BU354 Chapter 4 – Designing and Analyzing Jobs Week 3 Step 1: Review Relevant Background Information -The relationships between people and tasks must be structured so that the organization achieves its strategic goals in an efficient and effective manner through a motivated and engaged workforce -Organizational structure – the formal relationships among jobs in an organization -Organization chart – a “snapshot” of the firm, depicting the organization’s structure in chart form at a particular point in time -Designing an organization involves choosing a structure that is appropriate given the company’s strategic goals -Includes the review of relevant background information, such as organization chars, process charts, and existing job descriptions -Process chart – a diagram showing the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job under study Step 2: Select Jobs to be Analyzed -Job design – the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job The Evolution of Jobs and Job Design -Work simplification – an approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management -Work simplification can increase operating efficiency in a stable environment and may be very appropriate in settings employing individuals with intellectual disabilities or those lacking education and training -Industrial engineering – a field of study concerned with analyzing work methods making work cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and establishing time standards -Too much emphasis on the concerns of industrial engineering – improving efficiency and simplifying work methods – may result in human considerations being neglected or downplayed -Job enlargement (horizontal loading)- a technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform -Job rotation – a technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom that involves systematically moving employees from one job to another -Job enrichment (vertical loading) – any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties -Enriching jobs can be done by: -Increasing the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job -Assigning workers more authority and control over outcomes -Providing feedback about individual or unit job performance directly to employees -Adding new tasks requiring training, thereby providing an opportunity for growth -Assigning individuals entire tasks or responsibility for performing a whole job rather than only parts of it -Job enrichment is not always the best approach -Ergonomics- an interdisciplinary approach that seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs. It aims to adapt the entire job system – the work, environment, machines, equipment, and processes – to match human characteristics Competency-Based Job Analysis -Writing job descriptions based on competencies rather than job duties BU354 Chapter 4 – Designing and Analyzing Jobs Week 3 -It emphasizes what the employee must be capable of doing, rather than a list of the duties he or she must perform -Competencies- demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job -The job required competencies can be identified by simply completing this sentence “In order to perform this job competently, the employee should be able to….” -Competency-based job analysis – describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioural competencies an employee must exhibit to do a job well Three Reasons to Use Competency Analysis -Traditional job descriptions may actually backfire if a high-performance work system is the goal -Describing the job in terms of the skills, knowledge, and competencies the worker needs is more strategic -Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies support the employer’s performance management process Examples of Competencies “Design complex software applications, establish protocols, and create prototypes” (systems engineer) Comparing Traditional vs. Competency-Based Job Analysis -In almost any job description today some of the job’s listed duties and responsibilities are competency- based -Some of the job’s typical duties and responsibilities are more easily expressed as competencies Team-Based Job Designs -Team-based job designs – job designs that focus on giving a team, rather than an individual, a whole and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work -Team – a small group of people with complementary skills who work toward common goals for which they hold joint responsibility and accountability Step 3: Collecting Job Analysis Information -Various qualitative and quantitative techniques are used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, and requirements of the job -Collecting job analysis data involves joint effort by an HR specialist The Interview -Three types of interviews are used to collect job analysis data: individual interviews with each employee; group interviews with employees who have the same job; supervisory interviews with one or more supervisors who are thoroughly knowledgeable about the job being analyzed -The most fruitful interviews follow a structured or checklist format Interview Guidelines -Keep the following in mind: 1. The job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the employees who know the job best as well as those who might be expected to be the most objective in describing their duties and responsibilities 2. Rapport should be established quickly with the interviewee by using the individual’s name, speaking in easily understood language, briefly reviewing the purpose of the inte
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