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Chapter 4

BU354 Chapter 4 - Designing and Analyzing Jobs.docx

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Chet Robie

Chapter 4 – Designing and Analyzing Jobs Fundamentals of Job Analysis  Job analysis – process by which info about jobs is systematically gathered and organized. o A.k.a. cornerstone of HRM  Job – consists of a group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of incumbents o Duties of a job should be clear and distinct from those of other jobs o Should involve natural units of work that are similar and related o Helps minimize conflict and enhance employee performance  Position – the collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person Uses of Job Analysis Information  Job analysis – the procedure firms use to determine the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes required to perform it. o It is then used for developing job descriptions (what the job entails) and job specifications (what the human requirements are). Human Resource Planning  Knowing actual requirements of an organization’s various jobs is essential for planning future staffing needs. Recruitment and Selection  Job description and job specification info should be used to decide what sort of person to recruit and hire.  Identifying bona fide occupational requirements and ensuring all activities related to recruitment and selection are based on these requirements. Compensation  Job analysis info is also essential for determining the relative value of and appropriate compensation for each job.  Job evaluation should be based on the required skills, physical and mental demands, responsibilities, and working conditions (assessed through job analysis)  Relative value of jobs = one key factor used to determine appropriate compensation  Info about actual job duties is necessary to determine whether a job qualifies for overtime pay and for max-hours purposes Performance Management  When assessing employee performance, it must be directly related to the duties and responsibilities identified through job analysis  Performance standards are determined through job analysis with jobs involving routine tasks  For complex jobs, performance standards are often jointly established by employees and their supervisors Labour Relations  In unionized environments, job descriptions developed from the job analysis info are generally subject to union approval before being finalized.  Such union-approved job descriptions then become the basis for classifying jobs and bargaining over wages, performance criteria, and working conditions Training, Development and Career Management  By comparing the KSAs that employees bring to the job with those that are identified by job analysis, mangers can determine gaps that require training programs.  Need accurate info about jobs so employees can prepare for future advancement by identifying gaps Restructuring  Job analysis is useful for ensuring that all of the duties that need to be done have actually been assigned and for identifying areas of overlap within duties.  Having an accurate description of each job may lead to the identification of unnecessary requirements, areas of conflict or dissatisfaction, or health and safety concerns that can be eliminated through job restructuring. Steps in Job Analysis  Traditionally, organizations would first determine the intended use of job analysis info since this determined the types of data that should be collected and techniques used. (not used anymore)  Steps include: 1. Relevant organization info is reviewed 2. Jobs are selected to be analyzed 3. Using one or more job analysis techniques, data are collected on job activities 4. The info collected in 3 is then verified and modified 5. Job descriptions and specifications are developed based on the verified info 6. The info is then communicated and updated on an as-needed basis Step 1: Review Relevant Background Info  Organizational structure – the formal relationships among jobs in an organization  Process chart – diagram showing flow of inputs to and outputs from the job under study  Organization chart – often used to depict the structure of a firm in chart form at a particular point in time. o By means of connecting lines, it clarifies the chain of command and shows who is accountable to whom o It doesn’t provide details about actual communication patterns, degree of supervision, amount of power and authority, or specific duties.  Designing an organization involves choosing a structure that is appropriate given the company’s strategic goals.  Three common types of organizational structure: o 1) Bureaucratic  Typical manufacturing organization  Top-down management approach  Many levels, and hierarchical communication channels and career paths  Highly specialized jobs with narrowly defined job descriptions  Focus on independent performance o 2) Flat  Typical research and development organization  Decentralized management approach  Few levels and multidirectional communication  Broadly defined jobs with general job descriptions  Emphasis on teams and on product development o 3) Matrix  Consumer products company  Each job has two components: functional and product  Finance personnel for product B are responsible to both the finance executive and the product B executive o In flatter organizations, managers have increased spans of control so less time to manage each one. o In organizations using self-managed work teams, employees’ jobs change daily, so management intentionally avoids having employees view their jobs as specific, narrow set of responsibilities  Step 1 includes the review of relevant background info such as organization charts, process charts, and existing job descriptions. Step 2: Select jobs to be analyzed  Step 2 involves he selection of representative positions and jobs to be analyzed  Necessary when there are many incumbents in a single job and when a number of similar jobs are to be analyzed because it would be too time-consuming to do so  Job design – the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job o An organization’s strategy and structure influence the ways in which jobs are designed o Takes into consideration human and technological factors  Traditional meaning of job = set of well-defined and clearly delineated responsibilities  Companies are facing challenges: o Rapid product and technological change o Global competition o Deregulation o Political instability o Demographic changes o Shift to a service economy  This has led an increase of needing firms to be responsive, flexible and more competitive  All these changes led to work becoming more: o cognitively complex o team-based and collaborative o dependent on social skills o dependent on technological competence o time pressured o mobile o less dependent on geography  led some organizations to focus on personal competencies and skills in job analysis, hiring, and compensation management rather than on specific duties The Evolution of Jobs and Design  substitution of machine power for people power became more widespread and said there is a positive correlation between: o 1) job specialization o 2) productivity and efficiency  Work simplification – based on the premise that work can be broken down into clearly defined, highly specialized, repetitive tasks to maximize efficiency o Involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work to supervisors and managers, giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods of established and specified by management o Evolved from scientific management theory o Advantages:  Can increase operating efficiency in a stable environment  may be appropriate in settings employing individuals with intellectual disabilities or those lacking education and training o Not effective in:  changing environment in which customers demand custom-designed products and or high-quality services  one in which employees want challenging work  job satisfaction, and often leads to higher rates of absenteeism, and turnover  Industrial engineering – analyzing work methods and establishing time standards to improve efficiency. o Systematically identify, analyze, and time the elements of each job’s work cycle and determine which elements can be modified, combined, rearranged, or eliminated to reduce time needed to complete the cycle o Too much emphasis on this may result in human considerations being neglected o Job design must also satisfy human psychological and physiological needs  Job enlargement (horizontal loading) – assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform. o Example: If work was assembling chairs, the worker who previously only bolted the seat to the legs might take on the additional tasks of assembling the legs and attaching the back. o Reduces monotony fatigue by expanding the job cycle and drawing range of skills  Job rotation – involves systematically moving employees from one job to another to relieve monotony and employee boredom. o Workers experience more task variety, motivation, and productivity o Company gains by having more versatile, multi-skilled employees  Job enrichment (vertical loading) – any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties o Motivating them to build opportunities for challenge and achievement o Involves increasing autonomy and responsibility by allowing them to assume a greater role o Activities include:  Increasing level of difficulty and responsibility  Assigning workers more authority and control over outcomes  Providing feedback about their performance directly  Adding new tasks requiring training, and provides growth  Assigning individuals entire tasks for performing a whole job rather than parts of it Competency-based Job Analysis  Competency-based job analysis – writing job descriptions based on competencies rather than job duties  emphasizes what the employee must be capable of doing  competencies – demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job o always observable and measurable behaviours  traditional job analysis focus on “what” is accomplished (job focused)  competency-based job analysis focuses on “how” the worker meets the job’s objectives (worker focused) 3 Reasons to Use Competency Analysis 1) encourages employees to work in a self-motivated way by: a. organizing the work around teams b. encouraging team members to rotate freely among jobs c. pushing more responsibility for things like day-to-day supervision d. organizing work around projects in which jobs may blend or overlap 2) describing the job in terms of the skills, knowledge, and competencies the worker needs is more strategic 3) measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies support the employer’s performance management processes Examples of Competencies  general or core competencies = reading, writing, math reasoning  leadership competencies = leadership, strategic thinking, and teaching  technical/task/functional competencies = focus on specific technical competencies for specific occupations) Team-based Job Designs  team-based job designs – job designs that focus on giving a team a whole and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering them to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work  often they are cross-trained and rotate through different tasks  best suited to flat and matrix organization structures  organizations are using “virtual teams” – people working together effectively and efficiently across boundaries of time and space using technology Step 3: Collecting Job Analysis Information  collecting job analysis data usually involves a joint effort by an HR specialist, the incumbent, and the jobholder’s supervisor o HR specialist = observe and analyze work and develop a job description and specification o Supervisor and incumbent = review and verify job conclusions regarding job’s d
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