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Chapter 6

BU354 Chapter 6 - Recruitment.docx

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Chet Robie

Chapter 6 – Recruitment The Strategic Importance of Recruitment  Recruitment – the process of searching out and attracting qualified job applicants. o Begins with the identification of a position that requires staffing and is completed when the resumes or completed application forms are received from an adequate number of applicants  Authority for recruitment is generally delegated to HR staff members, except in small businesses where line managers usually recruit their own staff  In large organizations where recruiting is done on a continual basis, the HR team typically includes recruiters, whose job is to find and attract applicants. o Recruiters are becoming increasingly critical to achieving an organization’s strategic objectives as competition for the employees necessary for strategy implementation increases due to the growing talent shortage Employer Branding  Proactive employers are trying to obtain a competitive advantage in recruitment by establishing themselves as employers of choice through employer branding  The purpose of this is to attract people to apply to work at the organization and to earn the loyalty of current employees  Employer branding – the image or impression of an organization as an employer based on the perceived benefits of being employed by the organization  It is the experience of an employee when working for a company, based on feelings, emotions, senses, realities, and benefits  It is essentially a promise made to employees and their perception of how well that promise is delivered  Employer branding is important during the recruitment process, not just for applicants who are eventually hired.  Branding includes the experiences a candidate goes through while interacting with a company throughout the recruitment process, including: o What candidates experience when they go to the company’s website o Whether HR sends an acknowledgement letter or email thanking each candidate who sends in a resume o How candidates are greeted by the receptionist when they make initial contact by phone or in person o Whether the HR person who interviews candidates is a good spokesperson who can articulate the organization’s values and culture Steps to employer branding:  Step 1: Define the target audience o Where to find them and what they want from an employer o The target group may be one of the four generations, the underemployed, or the four employment equity groups  Step 2: Develop the employee value proposition o List the reasons why the organization is a unique place to work and a more attractive employer for the target audience compared to other organizations o The use of clear concrete facts, programs, policies, survey results and info will portray the organization as an employer of choice o Ensure that current managers are prepared to deliver the value proposition by guiding and mentoring employees  Step 3: Communicate the brand by incorporating the value proposition into all recruitment efforts o The communication should reinforce and remind current and potential employees of promises in the employee value proposition and of the organization’s ability to deliver it through their managers o An integrated marketing approach to internal and external communication should use various channels The Recruitment Process 1) Identify job openings:  HR plans play a vital role in this process, because they indicate present and future openings and specify which should be filled internally and which externally  Employee resignations/terminations are discussed at this stage as well. 2) Specify job requirements:  Involves reviewing the job description and job specifications and updating them if necessary 3) Select methods of recruitment:  The major decision here is whether to start with internal or external recruiting  There is no single, best recruiting technique, and the most appropriate for any given position depends on a number of factors 4) Generate pool of qualified applicants:  The requirements of employment equity legislation and the organization’s diversity goals should be reflected here A recruiter must be aware of constraints affecting the process to be successful in his job  Constraints arise from: o Organizational policies, such as promote-from-within policies (a recruiter cannot start recruiting externally for a specified period, even if he or she is aware that there are no suitable internal candidates). o Compensation policies, since they influence the attractiveness of the job to potential applicants o Monetary and non-monetary inducements offered by competitors impose a constraint, since recruiters must try to meet the prevailing standards of the company or use alternative inducements o Current labour shortage also makes recruiting more difficult Developing and Using Application Forms  An application form provides an efficient means of collecting verifiable historical data from each candidate in a standardized format; it usually includes info about education, prior work history, and other job-related skills  A completed application form can provide the recruiter with info on the applicant’s education and experience, etc. and info that can be used to predict whether or not the candidate will succeed on the job  There are many reasons for this practice: o Candidate comparison is facilitated because info is collected in a uniform manner o The info that the company requires is specifically requested, rather than just what the candidate wants to reveal o Candidates are typically asked to complete an application form while on the company’s premises, and thus it’s a sample of the candidate’s own work o Application forms typically ask the candidate to provide written authorization for reference checking o Candidates are asked to acknowledge that the info provided is true and accurate o Many application forms today have an option section regarding designated group member status  Biographical information blank (BIB) – a type of application form requesting biographical data found to be predictive of success on the job, pertaining to background, experiences, and preferences. o Also known as bio data form o Questions related to age, gender, race or other grounds prohibited under human rights legislation cannot be used o BIBs are difficult to fake; requires that the items that are valid predictors of job success be identified and that scores be established for different responses to these items  Shift in the format of the forms from traditional paper and pen to online applications given the exposure to WWW and the advances in HR info systems. o Online applications reduce the risk of lost applications, increases the exposure level of the job ad, and can reduce likelihood of biases associated with other forms of face-to-face recruitment o Online forms can result in a large number of applicants, putting pressure on staff to manage high volume of applicants o HRIS can be useful here in automatically coding and storing applications, allowing HR staff to search through the applications using specified search functions  Can also pre-screen applicants against predetermined criteria o Online allows around-the-clock convenience since applicants can create and submit applications or resumes on an ongoing and continuous real-time basis Recruiting from Within the Organization  Current employees are generally the largest source of recruits  Advantages of filling open positions with inside candidates: o Accumulation of firm-specific knowledge and experience involves a joint investment by both employee and employer making both parties benefit from maintaining long-term relationship o Employee sees competence reward = enhances commitment, morale, and performance o Managers are provided with long-term perspective when making business decisions o Require less orientation than outsiders do  Drawbacks from within recruitment: o Employees who apply for promotions and don’t get it get discouraged and discontented o Managers may be required to post all job openings and interview all inside candidates, even when they already know whom they want to hire, thus wasting considerable time and creating false hope on the part of those employees not genuinely being considered o Employees may be less satisfied with and accepting of a boss appointed from within their own ranks than they would be with a newcomer  Possibilities of “inbreeding” – when an entire management team has been brought up through the ranks, they may have a tendency to make decisions “by the book” and to maintain status quo. Internal Recruitment Methods Job Posting  Job posting – the process of notifying current employees about vacant positions  Most companies now use computerized job-posting systems, where info about job vacancies can be found on the company’s intranet  Involves a notice outlining the job title, duties, hours, pay range, posting and closing date  Some post jobs on bulletin boards or in employee publications  Advantages: o Provides every qualified employee with a chance for a transfer or promotion o Reduces likelihood of special deals and favourism o Demonstrates organization’s commitment to career growth o Provides equal opportunity to all qualified employees  Disadvantages: o Unsuccessful candidates may become demotivated, demoralized, discontented, etc. o Tension may rise if it appears that a qualified internal candidate was passed over for an equally qualified or less qualified external candidate o The decision about which candidate to select may be more difficult if there are two or more equally qualified candidates Human Resources Records  Human resources records are often consulted to ensure that qualified individuals are notified, in person, of vacant positions  An examination of employee files, including resumes and application forms, may uncover employees who are working in jobs below their education or skill levels, people who already have the requisite KSAs, or individuals with the potential to move into the vacant position if given some additional training Skills Inventories  Skills inventories are used as supplement – ensures that qualified internal candidates are identified and considered for transfer or promotion when opportunities arise Recruiting from Outside the Organization  The advantages of external recruitment include: o The generation of a larger pool of qualified candidates, which may have a positive impact on the quality of the selection decision o The availability of a more diverse applicant pool, which can assist in meeting employment equity goals and timetables o The acquisition of skills or knowledge not currently available within the organization or the introduction of new ideas and creative problem-solving techniques o The elimination of rivalry and competition caused by employees jockeying for transfers and promotions, which can hinder interpersonal and interdepartmental cooperation o The potential cost savings resulting from hiring individuals who already have the required skills, rather than providing extensive training Planning External Recruitment  When choosing the external recruitment method(s), factors should be considered: o The type of job to be filled has a major impact  E.g. most firms normally rely on professional search firms for recruiting executive- level employees  Internet advertisements is commonly used for recruiting other salaried employees o Yield ratios help to indicate which recruitment methods are the most effective at producing qualified candidates  Yield ratio – the percentage of applicants that proceed to the next stage of the selection process  A recruiting yield pyramid can be devised for each method by calculating the yield ratio for each step in the selection process o Time-lapse data – the average number of days from when the company initiates a recruitment method to when the successful candidate begins to work  The amount of lead time available can be taken into account when deciding which strategy or strategies would be most appropriate External Recruitment Methods  The most successful way to find a job was through traditional networking, followed by online job boards  Traditional networking include: o Employee referrals o Former employees who have remained in contact with the organization o Concentrated job fairs based on relationships formed with educational institutes o Professional and trade associates o Labour organizations o Military personnel  Online job boards include: o Traditional online job boards o Corporate websites o Government initiated job boards Employee Referrals  Openings are announced in the company’s intranet or newsletter along with a request for referrals
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