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Chapter 6

BU354 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Job Performance, Job Analysis, W. M. Keck ObservatoryPremium

9 pages76 viewsFall 2018

Department
Business
Course Code
BU354
Professor
Shawn Komar
Chapter
6

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Chapter 6: Selection
- Once a pool of suitable applicants is created through recruiting, the process of selecting applicants
begins
- Selection process: a series of specific steps used by an employer to decide which recruits should be
hired
o Begins when recruits apply for employment and ends with the hiring decision
Strategic Significance of the Selection Function:
- Recruiting and selection are combined called the employment function in many HR departments
- In small departments, owner-manager typically does the hiring
o In larger departments, HR managers handle the hiring
Successful Execution of an Organizations Strategy Depends on the Calibre of its Employees:
- Organizations effectiveness and success depends on the quality and calibre of employees it hires
- An organizations mission and overall strategy affect the selection process and place major constraints
on the human resource manager when selecting employees
An Organizations Selection Decisions Must Reflect Job Requirements:
- Results of a job analysis help an organization to identify job duties, specifications and performance
standards
- Performance based job descriptions and valid selection tools are necessary in the context of selection
Selection Strategy Must Be Well Integrated with Organizational Priorities:
- Organizations differ in their strategic posture
o Organizational characteristics including product lines, market share and culture, carry widely
and are dynamic in nature
- The organizations stage in the life cycle provides a starting point in linking an organization overall
needs and its selection strategy
Selection Strategy Must Recognize Organizational Constraints:
- Systems employed for the selection of human resources should be cost-effective
- The selection process is a means in which an organization achieves its objectives
o Limits such as budgets and policies that could hinder the selection process
o Without budget limitations, selection procedures could be refined
- Policies may expand existing challenges or add more constraints
o Policies against discrimination reinforce external prohibitions
o Internal decrees may exceed legal demands from outside
Selection Strategy Must Adapt to Labour Market Realities:
- Important to have large, qualified pool of recruits from which to select applicants
o Some jobs are hard to fill that there are few applicants per opening
- Selection ratio: the ratio of the number of applicants hired to the total number of applicants
o 1:25 means there is a large number of applicants from which to select
- the number of applicants for a position is also partially dependent on a firms salary and benefit
apckage compared to others in the industry
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Relationship between Selection Strategy and Other Organizational Variables:
- key factors that influence/ affected by a firm’s selection strategy
o selection affects all major human resource functions within an organization
- Compensation levels, training etc. have an impact on selection strategy in the long term
Steps in the Selection of Human Resources:
- Sometimes the process can be made simple and effective although simplicity shouldn’t be achieved at
the cost of lower effectiveness
- To ensure both task and non-task factors are considered, HR departments use more involved sequence
of steps
o Reflect considerable variation from one organization to the next
- Type of selection procedure used depends on variety of factors including the size of the organization,
stage of its growth and jobs involved
Step 1: Preliminary Reception of Applicants
- Initial contact either in person or in
writing
- Courtesy interviews screens out obvious misfits
o Important part of good employer branding by the firm as information conveyed during these
meetings and professionalism displayed by the HR manager during the encounter may have
lasting implications for its future recruitment and marketing success
- Applying by letter are often sent a polite letter of acknowledgement
Step 2: Applicant Screening:
- Organization will have received a number of resumes or completed job application forms
- Purpose is to remove from further considerations those applicants who do not meet either the
education or experience qualifications required for the job
o Wittle the applicant pool down to those who meet the minimum qualifications
- Resumes and job applications are useful tools to screen out applicants who don’t meet minimum
specifications
- Weighted application blank (WAB): a job application form in which various items are given differential
weights to reflect their relationship to criterion measures
o Useful to predict a number of different indicators (job performance, turnover, absenteeism
etc.)
o Cost effective large number of applicants apply for few positions however don’t provide any
insight into why relationships exist
- Biographical information blanks (BIBs): a type of application blank that uses a multiple choice format
to measure a job candidate’s education, experiences, opinions, attitudes and interests
o Past and present behaviours and attitudes
o Differentially weighted according to how well they separate high from low performers
o Higher points for candidates who have been in leadership positions and prefer spending time
with other people as opposed to independent activities
o Cut-off scores are developed with applications that reach the min score to proceed to the next
step in selection process
- To determine whether or not to use a bib:
o The items must not adversely affect any protected groups of Canadians and the items must be
job related
Can show variation across organizations
Not all firms go through the above steps or in this
sequence
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o BIB questions may be viewed by applicants as invasive and may have the unintended effect of
turning off well-qualified applicants
o Responses to BIB questions are not easily verifiable so they can be faked by applicants
o Typically, BIBs will have to be developed for each organization
- Whatever the type of application form used, information given in an application form or resume may
contain elements of embellishment and even fabrication
o Resume fraud has become a major concern of recruiters
Resumes have to be carefully analyzed for inconsistencies and checked against
information coming from other sources
Step 3: Administration of Employment Tests
- Useful for obtaining relatively objecting information which can be compared with that pertaining to
other applicants and present jobholders
- Employment tests: devices that assess the probable match between applicants and job requirements
o some are written tests others are excursuses that stimulate work conditions
- How do we choose which tests to use?
Reliability and Validity of Selection Tests:
o For a test to be useful, it must meet the twin criteria of reliability and validity:
Reliability: the test yields consistent results
If results vary widely with each retest because good scores depend on luck, the
test is not reliable
Reliability of a test may become low for a variety of reasons:
o The test questions may be hard to understand or ambiguous, thus
resulting in different test takers reading different meanings into the same
question or sentence
Same person may interpret a question differently on different
occasions because of poor test construction
o The test questions may be so hard or boring that the examinee loses all
interest and begins to respond almost randomly or erratically
o External factors, events, or personal characteristics may result in random
errors
Validity: asks the question “is the test accurately measuring what it is purported to
measure?”
Requires that the test scores significantly relate to job performance or some
other relevant criterion
The stronger the relationship between test results and performance, the more
effective the test is as a selection tool
When tests are not reliable, they are also not valid since they are not measuring
the trait with any degree of consistency
To ensure that its tests are valid, HR departments should conduct validation
studies
o Compare test results with performance of traits needed to perform the
job
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