Textbook Notes (363,550)
Canada (158,417)
Business (2,364)
BU354 (259)
Chapter 3

Ch3 - Designing and Analyzing Jobs

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Shawn Komar

Chapter 3 Designing and Analyzing Jobs Organizing Work for Strategic Success  Organizational Structure refers to the formal relationships among jobs in an organization. An organization chart depicts the organization’s structure in chart form at a particular point in time; it shows the chain of command and who is accountable to whom. o Bureaucratic Structure  Top-down management approach  Many levels, and hierarchical communication channels and career paths  Highly specialized jobs with narrowly defined job descriptions  Focus on independent performance o Flat Structure  Decentralized management approach  Few levels and multi-directional communication  Broadly defined jobs, with general job descriptions  Emphasis on teams and on product development o Matrix Structure  Each job has two components: functional and product  Finance personnel for product B are responsible to both the finance executive and the product B executive Job Design  Job design is the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job. A job is a group of related activities and duties, held by an employee. The collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person is known as a position. Job Specialization (Industrial Engineering)  Work Simplification is an approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management. o Work simplification can increase efficiency in a workplace with intellectual disabilities; lack of education and training. But will decrease efficiency in one with educated workers and changing environment where customers want specialized, quality products.  Industrial Engineering is concerned with analyzing work methods; making work cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and establishing time standards. o However, it is hard to find fulfilment when jobs are so simplified. To be effective job design must also satisfy human psychological and physiological needs. Behavioural Aspects of Job Design  Job Enlargement (horizontal loading) involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility, increasing tasks, and decreasing monotony.  Job Rotation involves systematically moving employees from one job to another to increase task variety, motivation, and productivity  Job Enrichment (vertical loading) is any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties. It involves increasing autonomy and responsibility by allowing employees to assume a greater role in the decision making process.  Team-based Job Designs focus on giving a team a while and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work. Ergonomic Aspects of Job Design  Ergonomics seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs. It aims to adapt the entire job system – the work environment, machines, equipment, and processes – to match human characteristics. Increasing Job Flexibility  The meaning of a job as having clearly defined tasks and responsibilities is lessening as employees are performing different tasks and adapting to different needs of the company as it comes. The Nature of Job Analysis  Job Analysis is the procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in terms of KSA’s) required to perform it. Once this is complete, it is used for developing job descriptions and job specifications. Uses of Job Analysis Information:  Human Resources Planning – knowing what is required of jobs will help determine staffing needs  Recruitment and Selection – used to know what type of person to hire  Compensation – helps assess the relative value of jobs and therefore the compensation  Performance Appraisal – must be related to duties and responsibilities identifies through job analysis  Labour Relations – union-approved job descriptions become the basis for negotiations  Training, Development, and Career Management – allows us to identify gaps in reaching where we aspire  Job Design – useful for identifying duties that need to be completed and areas with overlap Steps in Job Analysis 1. Identify the use to which the information will be put, since this will determine the types of data that should be collected and the technique used. 2. Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts (shows flow of inputs and outputs), and existing job descriptions. 3. Select the representative positions and jobs to be analyzed. 4. Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviours, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job and use a job analysis technique. 5. Review the information with job incumbents to ensure the information is correct and complete. 6. Develop a job description and job specification that are the two concrete products of job analysis. *Process for analyzing the job’s workflow – looking at who is relevant to the job, and getting their feedback on what to include in the description. Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information Qualitative Job Analysis Techniques Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques  Position Analysis Questionnaire o questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of
More Less

Related notes for BU354

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.