Designing and Analyzing Jobs
Organizing Work for Strategic Success
Organizational Structure refers to the formal relationships among jobs in an organization. An
organization chart depicts the organization’s structure in chart form at a particular point in time; it shows
the chain of command and who is accountable to whom.
o Bureaucratic Structure
Top-down management approach
Many levels, and hierarchical communication channels and career paths
Highly specialized jobs with narrowly defined job descriptions
Focus on independent performance
o Flat Structure
Decentralized management approach
Few levels and multi-directional communication
Broadly defined jobs, with general job descriptions
Emphasis on teams and on product development
o Matrix Structure
Each job has two components: functional and product
Finance personnel for product B are responsible to both the finance executive and the
product B executive
Job design is the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a
specific job. A job is a group of related activities and duties, held by an employee. The collection of tasks
and responsibilities performed by one person is known as a position.
Job Specialization (Industrial Engineering)
Work Simplification is an approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative
aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level
employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by
o Work simplification can increase efficiency in a workplace with intellectual disabilities; lack of
education and training. But will decrease efficiency in one with educated workers and changing
environment where customers want specialized, quality products.
Industrial Engineering is concerned with analyzing work methods; making work cycles more efficient by
modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and establishing time standards.
o However, it is hard to find fulfilment when jobs are so simplified. To be effective job design must
also satisfy human psychological and physiological needs.
Behavioural Aspects of Job Design
Job Enlargement (horizontal loading) involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of
responsibility, increasing tasks, and decreasing monotony.
Job Rotation involves systematically moving employees from one job to another to increase task variety,
motivation, and productivity
Job Enrichment (vertical loading) is any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or
satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties. It involves increasing autonomy and responsibility
by allowing employees to assume a greater role in the decision making process.
Team-based Job Designs focus on giving a team a while and meaningful piece of work to do and
empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work.
Ergonomic Aspects of Job Design
Ergonomics seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs.
It aims to adapt the entire job system – the work environment, machines, equipment, and processes – to
match human characteristics.
Increasing Job Flexibility
The meaning of a job as having clearly defined tasks and responsibilities is lessening as employees are
performing different tasks and adapting to different needs of the company as it comes. The Nature of Job Analysis
Job Analysis is the procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the
human attributes (in terms of KSA’s) required to perform it. Once this is complete, it is used for
developing job descriptions and job specifications.
Uses of Job Analysis Information:
Human Resources Planning – knowing what is required of jobs will help determine staffing needs
Recruitment and Selection – used to know what type of person to hire
Compensation – helps assess the relative value of jobs and therefore the compensation
Performance Appraisal – must be related to duties and responsibilities identifies through job analysis
Labour Relations – union-approved job descriptions become the basis for negotiations
Training, Development, and Career Management – allows us to identify gaps in reaching where we aspire
Job Design – useful for identifying duties that need to be completed and areas with overlap
Steps in Job Analysis
1. Identify the use to which the information will be put, since this will determine the types of data that should
be collected and the technique used.
2. Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts (shows flow of
inputs and outputs), and existing job descriptions.
3. Select the representative positions and jobs to be analyzed.
4. Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviours, working conditions,
and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job and use a job analysis technique.
5. Review the information with job incumbents to ensure the information is correct and complete.
6. Develop a job description and job specification that are the two concrete products of job analysis.
*Process for analyzing the job’s workflow – looking at who is relevant to the job, and getting their feedback on
what to include in the description.
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
Qualitative Job Analysis Techniques Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques
Position Analysis Questionnaire
o questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of