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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 BU395.docx

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Maryam Hafezi

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BU395 Chapter 15 – Just-in-Time and Lean Production Week 8 Introduction -Just-in-time (JIT) – production system in which processing and movement of parts/modules/work-in-process occur just as they are needed, usually in small batches -Lean production – JIT in a broad sense, is a philosophy of waste reduction and continuous improvement The Goals A Balanced Rapid Flow -A family of products is a smooth, even, swift flow of materials, information, or work through the steps of the production process -The workload should be distributed evenly among the workstations -This goal includes the elimination of unevenness and overburden Elimination of Disruptions -Disruptions upset the smooth flow of products through the production system and cause variability System Flexibility -A flexible system is one that is robust enough to handle a mix of products and changes in the level of output, while still maintaining balance and throughput speed Elimination of Waste -Waste represents unproductive resources -Wastes include: -Overproduction -Over processing -Unnecessary inventory -Inefficient work methods -Waiting -Producing defective products -Unnecessary transportation -Underutilization of employee knowledge -The existence of these wastes is an indication that improvement is possible Continuous Improvement 1. Improvement should be done gradually and continuously 2. Everyone should be involved 3. It does not require spending great sums of money on technology or consultants 4. It can be applied anywhere 5. It involves learning by doing, using scientific thinking 6. Kaizen relies on direct observation and data collection -Kaizen is continuous problem solving -Continuous improvement becomes a way of thinking Product Design -Products should be designed with the customer voice in mind -Products should be designed for easy manufacturing and assembly – this speeds up the process Process Design A Balanced System -In a balanced system, workload is distributed evenly among workstations -Takt time – the maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit. Also called cycle time -Takt time is changed periodically to meet changing demand BU395 Chapter 15 – Just-in-Time and Lean Production Week 8 -The procedure for obtaining the takt time is: 1. Determine the net time available per shift by subtracting any non-productive time from total shift time 2. If there is more than one shift per day, multiply the net time per shift by the number of shifts to obtain the net available time per day 3. Calculate takt time by dividing the net available time by demand during the day A Flexible System 1. Reduce changeover time 2. Cross-train workers so they can help others facing over capacity 3. Use many small machines rather than few large machines 4. Use safety stocks 5. Keep some idle capacity Small Lot Sizes -Small lot sizes in both the production process and deliveries from suppliers yield a number of benefits that enable JIT/lean systems to operate efficiently Setup Time Reduction -Small lots and changing product mixes require frequent machine setups -Multipurpose equipment or attachments can help reduce setup time -Another method for setup time reduction is to separate the internal setup activities from the external setup activities, and to make as may setup activities as possible external Cellular Layout -A cell contains the machines and tools needed to process a family of parts that have similar processing requirements -Conversion to a cell requires: -Determining a family of products -Mapping the current process for the family of products -Determining the operations required -Determining the capacity requirements -Rearranging the layout and bringing the necessary machines closer together, usually in U shape -Determining the capacity of the cell -Upgrading the machines if the capacity is inadequate -Balancing the cell and determining labour requirements -Determining the WIP required between the machines/work stations in the cell -The advantages include faster throughput, less material handling, reduced space requirements, and flexibility to increase/decrease the capacity by adding/subtracting workers -The disadvantages of cells a
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