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Chapter 5-6

CC210 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5-6: Community Service, Frontal Lobe, Reinforcement


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CC210
Professor
Camie Condon
Chapter
5-6

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Chapter 5 & 6
February 6, 2017
4:03 PM
Youth Crime Rates and Sentences
General decrease in crime rate but increase in drug offences
Common sentences: probation, community service order, custody
Youth Criminal justice act; Expanded options for charging young offenders and protection ( 12-
18 )
12+ enter the criminal justice system
Trajectories of Adolescent Offenders
Two Types:
o Childhood-onset: behavioural problems start very early on in childhood (number of
additional challenges
Less frequent ( 3-5% but easy to spot)
o Adolescent-onset: show behavioural problems in teen years
70%, hard to tell when "just being a teenager" and rebelling
Age of onset as a critical factor: early onset more serious antisocial behaviour later in life
Will have a long string of criminal behaviour
Theories of Adolescent Offending
Biological Theories
o Children with antisocial biological father (or criminal) ; more likely to be antisocial and
engage in criminal behaviour
o Wadsworth (1976): antisocial youth have slower heart rates: higher threshold for
excitability and emotionality
Less frontal lobe activity; also affects other ages
o Moffitt and Henry (1989): less frontal lobe inhibition in antisocial youth = impulsivity
Cognitive Theories
o Cognitive deficits affect thought process, interpretation of social and emotional cues
and responses to them
o Deficits:
Attend to fewer cues
Misattribute cues: take ambiguous cues as hostile
Limited problem solving
Contribute to Conduct Disorder/Aggressive Behaviour
o *Types of Aggressive Behaviour
Reactive Aggression: everything is perceived very emotionally and is seen as
threat
Proatie Aggression: Behaiour that is goal oriented; don’t are aout ho gets
hurt or what happens just want the main goal; no thought given to appropriateness or
other people just "I need that"
Social theories
o First 6 years of life: parents and peers affect behaviour
o Learning from parents, siblings, peers, media
o Imitation of behaviour that have seen received by positive reinforcement
o Studies indicate: highly aggressive children witness antisocial behaviour regularly
(Patterson 1982)
Inadequate supervision: inconsistent discipline
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