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Chapter 1-2

CC210 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-2: Jordan Belfort, Child Pornography, Behavioural Sciences

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CC210 Quiz 1
Chapter one: Introduction
Case studies
1. NY Jordan Belfort Fraud/money
2. BC Chris Long hacking/stalking
3. Indiana Jared Fulge --? Child pornography
4. California Chris Brown assault
5. Norway Anders Braviolo Murder/terrorist/bombing
Social Construction
Paul Tappan believed crime is only acceptable in court once pleaded guilty
Social construction of crime replicates what behaviours to distinguish in socio-political
nature identifying morals, values and distinguish from right and wrong
Conflict theory focuses on power/wealth members to determine crimes in way to
promote/maintain position of dominance
Consensus theory focuses on society agreeing to crime
John Haggan argues relationships exist between perceived harm of a behaviour and
extent to which people agree should be criminalized
Violent Behaviour
Violence is intentional act of threatening, attempting, physical harm to a non-consensual
Physical violence is intentional act of injury to non-consensual person regardless of
minor offence
Classification of behavioural science unit divides murder into 4 categories
o Criminal enterprise homicide (desire to gain)
o Personal cause homicide (emotional conflict)
o Sexual homicide
o Group cause homicide
Instrumental violence is goal oriented, premeditated associated with a plan, absence of
emotions and lack of personal connections
Reactive violence is a response to aggression, no goal but revenge, spontaneous acts of
violence with high emotions such as anger and victims are usually friends/family
Theoretical Perspective
o Sociology identifies criminal behaviour as a human response
o Macro-theories use a large scale theory to explain phenomena at a broad group/whole
o Psychology identifies criminal behaviour as an individual response
o Micro-theories use a small scale theory to explain phenomena at an individual level
o Decision making is used to identify if the person is likely to offend
Scientific Theories
o Theories are a set of inter-connected statements that explain the relationship between 2 or
more events for example study habits and academics
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o Informal theories include observations, impression of everyday life as for scientific
theories require testable explanatory power
o Inter-individual differences focus on variations between 2 o r more that support the why
people commit
o Intra-individual differences reflect on variations between the same individual such as
behaviour changes
o Age-crime curves reflect on criminal rates that rise at adolescence, peak in early
adulthood and taper off during middle age
o The Philadelphia Birth Cohort in 1994 shows that men adult offences are lower than
Researching Criminal Behaviour
1. Descriptive research describes individual variables, easy to understand in real life
settings, has no predictions no casual interferences
2. Correlational Research Design describes the relationship between two or more
variables causing room for prediction and future events, issue includes long research
such as measures and observations over period of time
3. Classical experimental design requires random assignment (equal chance),
experimental group (exposed to variables under investigation) or control groups (not
exposed to variable)
Use of quasi-experimental designs (some features true) for random assignment
4. Meta-Analysis is quantitative research combining results of existing studies to
produce statistical estimate of average effect
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