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Chapter 7

CH110 Chapter 7: CH110 - Chapter 7 (The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom)


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CH110
Professor
Louise Dawe
Chapter
7

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Characteristics of Light
- Electromagnetic radiation  a form of energy propagated as mutually perpendicular
electric and magnetic fields through a vacuum or through a medium (such as glass)
- Includes visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray, and radio waves
Electromagnetic Radiation
- →ave  a disturbance that transmits energy through a medium
- Example  traveling wave in a rope; as a result of up-and-down hand motion,
waves pass along the rope from left to right continuing for the entire length of the
rope
- Parts of a wave:
- Trough  low points; the greatest depth below the centre line
- Crest  high points; the greatest height above the centre line
- Amplitude  the height of a crest/depth of a trough from the centre line
- →avelength ()  the distance between successive crests or troughs of a wave
motion
- Frequency (v)  in wave motion, this is the # of wave crests or troughs that pass
through a given point in a unit of times (unit  time-1, Hz is equivalent to s-1)
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- ↑elocity  if the wavelength is 0.5m, and the frequency is 3s-1, the speed of the wave
would be:
- () x (v) = velocity
- (0.5m) x (3s-1) = 1.5m/s
- Velocity is similar to speed, except velocity tells the speed and the direction the
wave is going
- Speed = distance/time
- →avelength () in meters (m)
- cm (10-2m)
- mm (10-3m)
- m (10-6m)
- nm (10-9m)
- Å (10-10m)
- Not an SI unit
- pm (10-12m)
- Electromagnetic radiation has a constant speed in a vacuum referred to as the speed of
light (c)
- The relationship between the speed of light, frequency, and wavelength of
electromagnetic radiation is given by:
- c(speed of light) = () x (v) - 2.997925 x 108 m/s
- Different waves with different wavelengths and frequency but the same speed will
periodically match up to be parallel for 1 bounce of the wave
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- There is an inverse relationship between wavelength and frequency
- Types of interferences:
- Constructive interference  2 sets of waves intersect in phase and their crests
and troughs are additive
- Destructive interference  2 sets of waves intersect out of phase and lead to
cancellation
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