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Chapter 1

CH110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: International System Of Units, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures

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Louise Dawe

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Sections 1.1
Atom and Molecules
- Basic particles from which matter is made of
- An atom is the base unit of a chemical substance
- Atoms are very small (diameter = order of one ten billionth of a meter)
- Atoms consist of a nucleus (protons and neutrons) and electrons
- Atoms that are combined form a molecule (can be same or different elements)
- Atoms in molecules are connected by sharing electrons in covalent bonds
-Diatomic – simplest molecule (contains 2 atoms)
- Insert picture from notes of coloured atoms
Chemical Formulas
-Chemical Compound – Substance which contains more than one element
- The amount of each element is fixed (relative amount of each element does not
change in a substance)
- Ex: Every molecule of water contains 2 hydrogen atoms and 1
oxygen atom
- A chemical formula describes a atomic composition
- Ex: Water = H2O
- Molecules always contain whole numbers of atoms
Section 1.2
The properties of a chemical substance can be divided into physical properties and
chemical properties.
Physical Properties:
- Can be measured without seeing a chemical reaction
- Physical properties are shown through: size, color, and mass
-Mass (m) – Quantity of matter
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