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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 CS101.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Communication Studies
Natalie Coulter

CS101 Chapter 12-Media Effects Week 11 Effects Studies Powerful Effects Theory -Powerful effects theory-theory that media have immediate, direct influence -Walter Lippman argued that we see the world not as it really is but as ‘pictures in our heads’. The ‘pictures’ of things we have not experienced personally, are shaped by the mass media Minimalist Effects Theory -The theory that media effects are mostly indirect -Two step flow model-media effects on individuals are through opinion leaders. Opinion leaders include clergy, teachers, and neighbourhood merchants. As mass communication became more sophisticated the two-step model was expanded into a multistep flow model to capture the complex web of social relationships that affects individuals. -Status Conferral-media attention enhances attention to people, subjects, issues -Narcotic zing Dysfunction-people deceive themselves into believing they’re involved when actually they’re only informed. So many people are overwhelmed by the volume of news and information available to them that they tend to withdraw from involvement in public issues. Cumulative Effects Theory -The media do not have powerful immediate effects but argues that effects over time are profound. The cumulative effects theory notes that nobody can escape either the media, which are ubiquitous, or the media’s messages, which are driven home with redundancy. -Noelle-Neumann created this theory Third-Person Effect -One person overestimating the effect of media messages on other people -W.P. Davison came up with the concept of 1983 -This theory can be reduced to this notion: “It’s the other guy who can’t handle it, not me”. Future Theories -Melvin DeFleur composed this theory -Pessimistic thoughts about what is happening now in mass communications studies. Uses and Gratifications Studies Challenges to Audience Passivity -explores how individuals choose certain media outlets. One vein of research said people seek certain media to gratify certain needs Surveillance Function -Surveillance is provided for individuals by the mass media, which scan local and global environments for information that helps individuals make decisions to live better, even survive -Surveillance function-media provide information on what’s going on -Although most people don’t obsess about being on top of all that’s happening in the world, there is a touch of the news junkie in everybody. All people need reliable information on their immediate environment. CS101 Chapter 12-Media Effects Week 11 Socialization Function -Helps people to fit into society -For example, without paying attention to the media, it is hard to participate in conversations about Tom Cruise’s latest m
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