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Chapter 8

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Communication Studies
Natalie Coulter

CS101 Chapter 8-News Week 3 Media in Theory -Canadians love news -90% of Canadians are “interested” or “somewhat interested” in news and follow it on a daily basis -News is “the significant, the unusual, that which affects us” according to Brian Green Journalism Traditions Colonial Period -Benjamin Harris published the first newspaper in 1690 called ‘Publick Occurences’ in Boston -A newspaper needed royal consent and since he did not get that he was shut down after one issue -John Zenger produced a paper in New York to go against the papers that were Crown-supported in 1733, the newspaper antagonized the governor and Zenger was arrested -Andrew Hamilton argued for Zenger that there should be no punishment for printing articles that are true -The traditions still in place from the colonial period: The news media, both print and broadcast, relish their independence from government censorship and control The news media, especially newspapers and magazines, actively try to mould government policy and mobilize public sentiment. Today this is done primarily on the editorial page. Journalists are committed to seeking truth, which was articulated as a social value in Zenger’s truth defence In a capitalistic system the news media are economic entities that sometimes react in their own self- interest when their profit making ability is threatened Partisan Period -The Partisan Period-from the American revolution at least to the 1830s -Traditions from the partisan period that continue today: Government should keep its hands off the press The news media are a forum for discussion and debate, as newspapers were in the Federalist Papers dialogue on what form the Constitution should take The news media should comment vigorously on public issues Government transgressions against the news media will ultimately be met by public rejection of those committing the excesses which has happened periodically throughout history Penny Press Period -In 1833, Benjamin Say started a newspaper that changed journalism: The New York Sun -The writing was simple and straightforward -Merchants saw the unprecedented circulation of the penny papers as a way to reach great numbers of potential customers -Several social and economic factors, made the penny press possible: Industrialization-with new steam-powered presses, hundreds of copies an hour could be printed Urbanization-workers were flocking the streets to work and therefore were buying the paper as they passed it CS101 Chapter 8-News Week 3 Immigration-immigrants found that penny papers were good tutors for their English Literacy-as immigrants learned English, they hungered for reading material within their economic means -The Civil War gave rise to the inverted pyramid – most important information first - -Traditions held forward from the penny press period: Inverted pyramid story structures -coverage and writing that appeal to a general audience Strong orientation to covering events A commitment to social improvement Yellow Period -Yellow Period-late 1800s; marked by sensationalism History of Journalism in Canada -The Transplant Period (1752-1807)-Canada’s first newspapers were literally British or American newspapers that transplanted or resettled in Canada. -The Growth Period (1807-1858)-Following the War of 1812, immigration in Canada flourished, and the population doubled, this led to the growth of Canadian journalism because of the growth in population -Third Canadian Press Period: Westward Growth (1858-1900)-During the latter half of the 1800s, immigration and migration became two important factors in the growth of Canadian newspapers. As the Canadian population increased, it moved west and north and newspapers soon followed. -Fourth Canadian Press Period: The Twentieth Century Onward-In the 1900s came the age of journalism in Canada. Improvements in technology helped the newspaper grow to new hei
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