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CH9 Securing your system.docx

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Computer Science
Course Code
Mark Petrick

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CH9 Securing your system: protecting your digital data and devices Cybercrime  Any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer  Internet crime complaint center (C3) is a partnership between the FBI and national white collar crime center (NW3C) o Top 4 complaint categories: non-delivery of payments/merchandise, identity theft, auction fraud, credit card fraud  Includes viruses, but theft of computer equipment isn’t included Computer Threats: Computer Viruses  Main purpose of virus: replicate itself and cope its code into as many other host files as possible  Majority of viruses have side effects, ranging from displaying annoying messages on screen to destroying files or contents of entire hard drives Types of viruses  Boot-sector virus: replicates itself into a hard drive’s master boot record, often transmitted by a flash drive left in a USB port  Master boot record: program that executes whenever a computer boots up, ensuring that the virus will be loaded into memory immediately, even before some virus protection program can load  Logic bomb: virus that is triggered when certain logical conditions are met  Time bomb: triggered by the passage of time or on a certain date  Worm: take advantage of file transport methods (works independently off them) and spread on their own  Script: series of commands (miniprogram) that is executed without your knowledge  Macro virus: attaches itself to a documents that uses macros which is a short series of commands that usually automates repetitive tasks  Email viruses: use the address book in the victim’s email system to distribute the virus  Encryption viruses infect your computer, run a program that searches for common types of data files and compresses them using a complex encryption key that renders your files unusable Virus Classifications  Polymorphic virus changes its own code or periodically rewrites itself to avoid detection  Multipartite virus infects multiple file types in an effort to fool the antivirus software that is looking for it  Stealth viruses temporarily erase their code from the files where they reside and then hide in the active memory of the computer Computer Safeguard: Antivirus Software and Software Updates  Antivirus software: specifically designed to detect viruses and protect your computer and files from harm o Should run it at least once a week o Most look for virus signatures which is a portion of the virus code that is unique to a particular virus o Quarantining: if a virus is detected, it stops the execution of the file and virus and notifies you. It is then placed in a secure area on your hard drive so the virus doesn’t spread o Inoculation: records key attributes about files on your computer and keeps these stats in a safe place on your hard drive  Drive-by download: download harmful software onto your computer, which exploits weaknesses in OS Computer Threats: Hackers  Most commonly defined as anyone who unlawfully breaks into a computer system- either individual computer or network  White-hat hackers: break into systems for non-malicious reasons, not to steal or wreak havoc, or those under contract to test system security vulnerabilities. Individuals usually security experts who are performing a needed service for a company by uncovering the vulnerabilities in computer systems  Black-hat hackers: more villainous hackers  Gray hat hackers: cross between black and white hat hackers. Often illegally break into systems to flaunt their expertise to the administrator of the system they penetrated or to attempt to sell their services in repairing security breaches  Packet: data that travels through the internet in small pieces, identified with an IP address to help identify the computer to which they’re being sent. Once they reach their destination, they’re reassembled into cohesive messages  Trojan horse: program that appears to be something useful or desirable but while it runs does something malicious in the background without your knowledge o Caused from installation of backdoor programs and rootkits: programs that allow hackers to gain access to your computer and take almost complete control of it without your knowledge  Zombie: computer that a hacker controls  Denial-of-service (DOS) attack: legit users are denied access to a computer system because a hacker is repeatedly making requests of that computer system through a computer he or she has taken over as a zombie  Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack: launches DoS attacks from more than one zombie at the same time o Hacker creates many zombies and coordinates them so that they begin sending bogus request to the same computer at the same time, difficult to stop  Botnet: large group of software programs that runs autonomously on zombie computers  Direct method of hacking involves installing hacking software  Indirect method involves internet connection 
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