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CP102 Chapter Notes -National White Collar Crime Center, Internet Crime Complaint Center, Master Boot Record


Department
Computer Science
Course Code
CP102
Professor
Mark Petrick

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CH9 Securing your system: protecting your digital data and devices
Cybercrime
Any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer
Internet crime complaint center (C3) is a partnership between the FBI and national white collar crime center (NW3C)
o Top 4 complaint categories: non-delivery of payments/merchandise, identity theft, auction fraud, credit card fraud
Includes viruses, but theft of computer equipment isn’t included
Computer Threats: Computer Viruses
Main purpose of virus: replicate itself and cope its code into as many other host files as possible
Majority of viruses have side effects, ranging from displaying annoying messages on screen to destroying files or contents of entire
hard drives
Types of viruses
Boot-sector virus: replicates itself into a hard drive’s master boot record, often transmitted by a flash drive left in a USB port
Master boot record: program that executes whenever a computer boots up, ensuring that the virus will be loaded into memory
immediately, even before some virus protection program can load
Logic bomb: virus that is triggered when certain logical conditions are met
Time bomb: triggered by the passage of time or on a certain date
Worm: take advantage of file transport methods (works independently off them) and spread on their own
Script: series of commands (miniprogram) that is executed without your knowledge
Macro virus: attaches itself to a documents that uses macros which is a short series of commands that usually automates repetitive
tasks
Email viruses: use the address book in the victim’s email system to distribute the virus
Encryption viruses infect your computer, run a program that searches for common types of data files and compresses them using a
complex encryption key that renders your files unusable
Virus Classifications
Polymorphic virus changes its own code or periodically rewrites itself to avoid detection
Multipartite virus infects multiple file types in an effort to fool the antivirus software that is looking for it
Stealth viruses temporarily erase their code from the files where they reside and then hide in the active memory of the computer
Computer Safeguard: Antivirus Software and Software Updates
Antivirus software: specifically designed to detect viruses and protect your computer and files from harm
o Should run it at least once a week
o Most look for virus signatures which is a portion of the virus code that is unique to a particular virus
o Quarantining: if a virus is detected, it stops the execution of the file and virus and notifies you. It is then placed in a secure
area on your hard drive so the virus doesn’t spread
o Inoculation: records key attributes about files on your computer and keeps these stats in a safe place on your hard drive
Drive-by download: download harmful software onto your computer, which exploits weaknesses in OS
Computer Threats: Hackers
Most commonly defined as anyone who unlawfully breaks into a computer system- either individual computer or network
White-hat hackers: break into systems for non-malicious reasons, not to steal or wreak havoc, or those under contract to test
system security vulnerabilities. Individuals usually security experts who are performing a needed service for a company by
uncovering the vulnerabilities in computer systems
Black-hat hackers: more villainous hackers
Gray hat hackers: cross between black and white hat hackers. Often illegally break into systems to flaunt their expertise to the
administrator of the system they penetrated or to attempt to sell their services in repairing security breaches
Packet: data that travels through the internet in small pieces, identified with an IP address to help identify the computer to which
they’re being sent. Once they reach their destination, they’re reassembled into cohesive messages
Trojan horse: program that appears to be something useful or desirable but while it runs does something malicious in the
background without your knowledge
o Caused from installation of backdoor programs and rootkits: programs that allow hackers to gain access to your computer
and take almost complete control of it without your knowledge
Zombie: computer that a hacker controls
Denial-of-service (DOS) attack: legit users are denied access to a computer system because a hacker is repeatedly making requests
of that computer system through a computer he or she has taken over as a zombie
Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack: launches DoS attacks from more than one zombie at the same time
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