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CH7 Networking.docx

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Computer Science
Mark Petrick

CH7 Networking: Connecting Computing Devices  Computer network: two or more computers that are connected via software and hardware so that they can communicate with each other  Node refers to each device connected to a network  Home networks main function: facilitate information sharing  Advantage of networking: computers running different OS can communicate on the same network  Network administration involves o Installing new computers and devices o Monitoring the network to ensure it is performing efficiently o Updating and installing new software on the network o Configuring or setting up proper security for a network Network Architectures  Refers to design of a network, classified according to the way they’re controlled and distance between their nodes  Can be locally or centrally administered o Local: configuration and maintenance of the network must be performed on each individual computer attached to the network o Central: tasks can be performed from one computer and affect the other computers on network  Peer-to-peer (P2P) network: each node connected to the network can communicate directly with every other node on the network, all nodes on this type of network are peers (equals), very common in homes  Client/server network: contains two different types of computers o Client: computer where users accomplish specific tasks and make specific requests o Server: provides information or resources to the client computers on the network  Home network server: designed to store media, share media across the network and back up files on computers connected to the network. All computers connected to the network can access the server, but doesn’t change the P2P sharing, administration tasks must be performed locally  Home area network (HAN): connect all of a home’s digital devices  Local area network (LAN): network in which nodes are located within a small geographic area  Wide area network (WAN): made up of LANs connected over long distances  Metropolitan area network (MAN): network is designed to provide access to a specific geographic area, such as a city Network Components  To function, all networks must include a means of connecting the nodes on the network, special devices that allow the nodes to communicate with each other and send data, and software that allows the network to run  Transmission media: establish a communications channel between the nodes on a network and can be either wireless or wired  Wireless networks use radio waves to connect nodes  Wired networks use various types of cable (wire) to connect nodes: o Twisted-pair cable: made up of copper wires that are twisted around each other and surrounded by a plastic jacket, ex telephone cable o Coaxial cable: consists of a single copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic o Fiber-optic cable: made up of plastic or glass fibers that transmit data at extremely fast speeds  Data transfer rate (bandwidth): maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network  Throughput: actual speed of data transfer that is achieved, always less than or equal to data transfer rate o both usually measured in Mbps  network adapter: devices installed in network nodes that enable the nodes to communicate with each other and to access the network  network interface card (NIC): inside the device, built to use wireless media, but can use wired media too  why wireless signals may have decreased throughput include: o wireless signals are more suspectible to interference from magnetic and electrical sources o other wireless networks can interfere with the signals on your network o certain building materials and metal can decrease throughput o throughput varies depending on the distance from your networking equipment  wireless networks use specially coded signals to protect their data, which could slightly decrease throughput  network navigation devices facilitate and control the flow of data through a network  data is sent over transmission media in bundles, each bundle is called a packet  for computers to communicate, these packets of data must be able to flow between network nodes  router: transfers packets of data between two or more networks  switch: traffic cop on a network, receive data packets and send them to their intended nodes on the same network  home networks need OS software that supports P2P networking  network operating system (NOS) software that controls client/service networks by centralized servers o handles request for info, internet access, the use of peripherals for the rest of the network nodes Connecting to the Internet  internet service providers (ISPs)  2 main choices: broadband or dial-up o broadband: uses high-speed data access whereas dial-up uses conventional phone lines and technology, transmission rate of 5Mbps. Dial-up has a maximum transmission speed of 56 Kbps  requires a modem which translates the broadband signal into digital data and back again  Broadband (high speed) options:  digital subscriber line (DSL): uses same types of wiring used in standard hone lines to connect your computer to the internet and cable, wh
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