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CP102 (83)
Chapter 1

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Computer Science
Patrick Mc Graw

Chapter 1 Computers and Digital Basics Section A: All Things Digital The Digital Revolution Data Processing Personal Computing Network Computing Cloud Computing Digital Society The Digital Revolution •Digital Revolution -ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by digital technology; i.e. computers, Internet •Driven by -technology based on digital electronics idea that electrical signals can represent data, such as numbers, words, pictures, and music •Digitization is the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices •The digital revolution has evolved through four phases, beginning with big, expensive, standalone computers, and progressing to today痴 digital world in which small, inexpensive digital devices are everywhere Data Processing •Some historians mark the 1980s as the beginning of the digital revolution, but engineers built the first digital computers during World War II for breaking codes and calculating missile trajectories •Computers were operated by trained technicians •Back then, processing components for computers were housed in closet-sized cabinets that did not usually include a keyboard or display device •Data processing is based on an input-processing-output cycle •Data goes into a computer, it is processed, and then it is output Personal Computing •Second phase: personal computing •Characterized by: -small, - standalone computers -powered by local software •Local software refers to any software that is installed on a computer 痴 hard drive Network Computing •Third phase materialized as computers became networked and the Internet was opened to public use •A computer network is a group of computers linked together to share data and resources •The Internet is a global computer network -originally developed as a military project -then handed over to the National Science Foundation for research and academic use Origin of the Internet •Internet is a network of networks connecting billions of computers globally •Developed while U.S. was in midst of Cold War with Soviet Union •Created to respond to two concerns: -Establishing a secure form of military communications -Creating a means by which all computers could communicate The Web vs the Internet www. Is not the internet!!!!! Word Wide Web = Web Pages Internet = all services Network Computing •The Web (short for World Wide Web) is a collection of linked documents, graphics, and sounds that can be accessed over the Internet •From 1995010, computing was characterized by: •the Web, e-mail, •multiplayer games Doom, WoW, etc •music downloads, •and enormous software applications, such as Microsoft Office, Norton 痴 Internet Security Suite, and Corel Digital Studio Cloud Computing •Local applications are being eclipsed by cloud computing, which characterizes the fourth phase of the digital revolution •Cloud computing: access information, applications, communications, and storage over the Internet •The expansion of cloud computing is due in part to convergence, a process by which several technologies with distinct functionalities evolve to form a single product •Convergence is important to the digital revolution because it created sophisticated mobile devices whose owners demand access to the same services available from full-size computers on their desks •Social media are cloud-based applications designed for social interaction and consumer-generated content Digital Society •Digital technologies and communications networks make it easy to cross cultural and geographic boundaries •Anonymous Internet sites, such as Freenet, and anonymizer tools that cloak a person 痴 identity, even make it possible to exercise freedom of speech in situations where reprisals might repress it •Citizens of free societies have an expectation of privacy •Intellectual property refers to the ownership of certain types of information, ideas, or representations •Expectation of privacy -Confidentiality? -Your personal information -What did you buy? Or watch? -Who did you call? -Where are you? •Digital technology is an important factor in global and national economies, in addition to affecting the economic status of individuals •Globalization can be defined as the worldwide economic interdependence of countries that occurs as cross-border commerce increases and as money flows more freely among countries •Some individuals are affected by the digital divide -the gap between people who have access to technology and those who do not •Digital technology permeates the very core of modern life Section B: Digital Devices Computer Basics Computer Types and Uses Microcontrollers Computer Basics •A computer is a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions •Computer input is whatever is typed, submitted, or transmitted to a computer system •Output is the result produced by a computer •Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas •Computers manipulate data in many ways, and this manipulation is called processing -Central Processing Unit (CPU) -Microprocessor •Memory (RAM) temporarily holds data waiting to be processed, stored, or output •Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immediately needed for processing •A file is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium •The series of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out processing tasks is referred to as a computer program -Software •Computer (1646~1940): a person who performs calculations •Computer: a multipurpose device that: -accepts input, -processes data, -stores data, -and produces output. •A stored program: a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer 痴 memory -Allows you to switch tasks -Distinguishes a computer from other simpler and less versatile digital devices •Application software is a set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task •Software applications are sometimes referred to as apps, especial
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