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Chapter 5

CC102 Chapter 5: Chapter 5 CC102

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Kerrie Sandford

The Police Chapter 5 Federal policing  The dominion police force was created in 1858 by the federal gov’t under the act if respecting police of Canada o The gov’t felt an agency was needed to keep peace between settlers and aboriginal people  In 1873, North West Mounted Police was established. This force had the responsibility of easing adversities of settlers in the West appeasing Aboriginal resistance, and deterring US colonization of British land.  In 1920 the Dominion police were joined together with the Royal North West Mounted police and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was established.  Today the RCMP includes 16000 men and women. Responsibilities are authorized under the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act of 1959 according to which it is responsible for federal statutes, including excise and customs, narcotics control, the Indian Act, and federal properties.  RCMP members are required to enforce Canadian laws, prevent crime, and maintain peace and order. o They can provide investigative and informational services such as the Canadian police Information Centre Provincial Policing  Ontario finally drafted a viable act for a fully provincial force in 1909 when it passed the legislation establishing the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) o The OPP enforces the criminal code in areas that do not have municipal or federal jurisdiction. o They may be called in when the local police request help or when the Ontario Civilian Commission on Police Services finds the municipality failing to meet the standard of service  They are responsible for the policing of provincial property, such as the Ontario legislature, they deliver policing to First Nations, offer specialized services such as marine, investigative, and tactical support services to municipalities that are unable to provide them  Today only Quebec’s and Ontario’s police forces have survived Regional and Municipal Policing in Ontario  The first municipal police force in Canada was established in Toronto in 1935  Responsibilities are set out in the Police Services Act: Every municipality is required to provide effective police services in accordance with its needs. Services must include crime prevention, law enforcement, assistance to victims of crime, public order maintenance, and emergency response Police Roles and Functions  Preserve the peace, prevent crimes, assist victims of crimes, apprehend criminals, lay charges and participate in prosecution, execute warrants, performs lawful duties assigned by chief of police, enforce municipal bylaws, and complete prescribed training Crime Prevention  Marvell and Moody collected data from 56 US cities over 20 years and found that with every police, 24 fewer crimes are committed  Some critics argue that increasing policing or toughening laws will increase crime rates by penetrating into the dark figure of crime  The Broken Windows theory or the Zero-tolerance theories have both been used as a crime prevention strategy. This strategy reduces crimes by displaying zero tolerance for minor acts of disorder which reduces major acts  Although this approach was very successful in New York and Boston, many people complained about aggressive policing increasing negative feelings towards authorities  Many police reformers believe that crime can be reduced by police who are more integrated into the communities they patrol. (When they negotiate with leaders of a demonstration before the event rather than react to them after the demonstration has begun, they are demonstrating crime prevention rather than clearing criminals) o In this way they are pre-empting the conditions that precipitate the criminal act Emergencies  Police are caught in a dilemma: when they restrict their availability to calls involving the need of enforcement expertise, they can preserve and better define their professionalism in the most glorious of their functions o However if you narrow them in this way, you make yourself inaccessible and push other service providers
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