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EC238 (54)
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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 EC238.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Karen Huff

EC238 Chapter 17 – Air Pollution-Control Policy Week 9 Air Pollution-Control Policies in Canada: A Brief Sketch Guidelines for Criteria Air Contaminants -The Clean Air Act gave the federal government the authority to: -Conduct a national program of air-pollution surveillance -Establish air-quality objectives -Establish regulations including standards at the source -Establish guidelines, which we recommended limits on pollutants -Objectives: 1. The maximum desirable level is the long-term goal for air quality to protect the population and ecosystems 2. The maximum acceptable level is the level of air quality needed to provide adequate protection against adverse effects of air pollutants on human health and comfort, soil, water, vegetation, animals, materials, and visibility 3. The maximum tolerable level represents the lowest boundary before immediate action is required to protect the health of the general population -The implications are that there is to be a new NAAQO framework that has two levels: -A reference level above which there are demonstrable effects on human health and/or the environment -Air quality objectives that provide a level of protection for the general population and the environment that also incorporates the technical feasibility of controlling emissions -There are guidelines and standards for emissions of certain air pollutants Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement -Canada signed the Ozone Annex, an agreement with the U.S. to reduce trans boundary smog – the overall target is to reduce NOx by 44% in the trans boundary region from 2000-2010 Canada-Wide “Standards” for Air Quality -In 1998 the federal government and all provinces signed the Sub-Agreement to the Canada-Wide Standards for the Environment -The goal of this is to set: -Numeric limits for pollutants -A timetable for attainment -A framework for monitoring progress and reporting to the public -Provinces can design their own policy instruments to reach the targets -The accord emphasizes the use of command-and-control policies -Canadian governments could use a number of incentive-based policies to meet their targets Motor Vehicle Emissions -The federal government regulates emissions from new motor vehicles under the Motor Vehicle Safety Act, which is now administered by Environment Canada under CEPA -Most provinces have note regulated emissions of vehicles once in use Total quantity of emissions = Number of vehicles x Average km. travelled x emissions per km. -In devising a cost-effective way of reducing the total quantity of emissions, one would want to balance the three factors on the right side of this equation according to the equimarginal principle -Vehicle emission policies in Canada and the United States rely on technological fixed to solve a massive air-pollution problem -An example of an innovative policy used in Canada was the tax on leaded fuel – the federal government regulates the lead content in gasoline EC238
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