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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 EC238.docx

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Department
Economics
Course
EC238
Professor
Karen Huff
Semester
Fall

Description
EC238 Chapter 15 – Environmental Policy and Institutions in Canada: An Overview Week 8 General Points about Canadian Environmental Policy 1. Incentive-based policies are much less common than command-and-control policies 2. There has been a reluctance to impose specific standards. Most regulation has been in the form of guidelines that suggest a range of pollution targets 3. Environmental legislation in Canada has been based on a co-operative model of negotiation between the government regulator and the polluting party where contracts exist between specific polluters and government 4. Environmental legislation in Canada has been primarily enabling rather than mandatory 5. Negotiation and moral suasion have been used to achieve compliance with environmental targets 6. Jurisdiction over the environment is not always well defined Constitutional Powers over the Environment -The key to understanding Canadian environmental policy is to recognize that most regulatory powers applicable to the environment lie with the provincial governments Environmental Regulation in a Parliamentary System 1. Under a parliamentary system with a majority government, the governing party has a lot of control over the legislative agenda 2. There are few, if any, checks and balances in a parliamentary system 3. The parliamentary system can also curtail public debate and scientific inquiry into environmental issues through its control of the federal bureaucracy 4. With the legislative and executive branches combined, environmental legislation takes on quite a different character in Canada than it does in the United States Regulatory Activities of Environment Canada 1. Many action plans were initiated to help meet the target of clean air, water, and land 2. Agreements were made with the private sector to reduce pollutants, especially in the area of toxic releases 3. Bilateral agreements were sig
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