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Chapter 2


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Environmental Studies
Robert Mc Leman

McLeman ES101 Living in the Environment - Ch.2 Environmental History: Learning from the Past 2-1 Cultural Changes and the Environment Earliest form of the human species was Homo sapiens idaltu, existed about 160 000 years ago. Latest version of human were Homo sapiens sapiens, existed 60 000 years ago. Until 12 000 years ago we were hunter gatherers. Three major cultural changes: agricultural revolution, industrial-medical revolution, information and globalization revolution = gave us more energy, new technologies, expansion of human population, increased resource use, pollution, environmental degradation. Slash-and-burn, shifting: 1. Clearing and burning vegetation 2. Planting 3. Harvesting for 2-5 years 4. Allowing plot to revegetate for 10-30 years 2-2 Environmental History of North America: Pre-Columbian Peoples and the Colonial Settlement Era The environmental history can be divided into four eras: pre-Columbian, colonial settlement, conversation, environmental. European settlers saw the continent as a vast frontier to conquer and settle. Early colonists developed a
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