ES 101 Intro to Enviro Textbook Notes

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Environmental Studies
Robert Mc Leman

Environmental Studies Text Book CHAPTER 1: Exponential Growth: Where a quantity increases at a constant rate per unit of time Ie, The world’s population increasing at 2% a year Environmental Studies: An interdisciplinary study that uses information from the physical and social science to learn how the Earth works, how humans interact with it, and how to deal with environmental problems. Environmentalism: A social movement dedicated to protecting the Earth’s life support systems for us and other species. Solar Capital: Energy from the sun Solar Energy: Renewable energy source that includes direct sunlight Natural Resource: The planets air, water, soil, wildlife, forest, rangeland, fishery, mineral, and energy resources and the processes of natural purification, recycling, and pest control Natural Capital: Consists of the natural resources but also ecological services that support and sustain the Earth’s life and economies Ecological Services: The planet’s population control, nutrient recycling, climate control, pollution control, waste treatment, biodiversity, and pest and disease control Carrying Capacity: The max number of organisms that can be maintained in an area without degrading the environment Sustainability: The ability of a system to survive for an extended period of time Ie, If we managed natural resources such as fish or forests then they would be available to us for as long as we need them Environmentally Sustainable Society: Meets the current needs of its people for food, clean water, clean air, shelter, and other basic resources without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs Economic Growth: An increase in the capacity of a country to provide people with goods and services. Gross domestic Product (GDP): The annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country. Economic Development: The improvement of living standards by economic growth Developed Countries: Around 1.2 billion people. Highly industrialized, have a high average per capita GDP Ie, Canada, United States, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand Developing Countries: Around 5.6 billion people. Some are middle income, moderately developed countries and others are low income countries. Ie, Africa, Asia, and Latin America Globalization: The process of social, economic, and environmental global changes that lead to an increasingly interconnected world Perpetual Resource: Solar energy. Renewed continuously. Renewable Resource: Can be replenished fairly rapidly (from hours to several decades) through natural processes Sustainable Yield: A renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply Environmental Degradation: When a renewable resource’s natural replacement rate has exceeded and the available supply begins to shrink Common Property/Free-Access Resources: No individual owns these resources and they are available to users at little or no charge Ie, clean air, open ocean and its fish, wildlife species, publicly owned lands like national parks), gases and lower atmosphere, and space Per Capita Ecological Footprint: The amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resource they use and to absorb or dispose of the waste from such resource use Pollution: The presence of substances at high enough levels in air, water, soil, or food to threaten the health, survival, or activities of humans or other organisms Point Sources: Pollutants that are single, identifiable sources Nonpoint Sources: Pollutants are dispersed and often difficult to identify The 3 Types of Unwanted Effects Of Pollutants 1. They can disrupt or degrade life-support systems for humans and other species 2. They can damage wildlife, human health, and property 3. They can be nuisances such as noise and unpleasant smells, tastes, and sights Pollution Prevention/Input Pollution Control: Reduces and eliminates the production of pollutants Pollution Cleanup/Output Pollution Control: Involves cleaning up or diluting pollutants after they have been produced Affluenza: Describes the unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in Canada, the United States, and the other developed countries Environmental Worldview: How you think the world works, what you think your role I the world should be, and what you believe is right and wrong environmental behavior (environmental ethics) Planetary Management Worldview and the basic environmental beliefs of this worldview: - As the planet’s most important species, we are in charge of nature - We will not run out of resources because of our ability to develop and find new ones - The potential for global economic growth is essentially unlimited - Our success depends on how well we manage the Earth’s life-support systems, mostly for our own benefit Stewardship Worldview and the major beliefs: - We are the plant’s most important species, but we have an ethical responsibility to care for the rest of nature - We will probably not run out of resources, but they should not be wasted - We should encourage environmentally beneficial forms of economic growth and discourage environmentally harmful forms of economic growth - Our success depends on how well we can manage the Earth’s life- support systems for out benefit and the rest of nature Env
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