Textbook Notes (369,101)
Canada (162,380)
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GG101 (32)
Chapter 2

GG101 Chapter 2 Notes.docx

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James Hamilton

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GG101 Chapter 2 Notes Solar Energy to Earth and the seasons The Solar System, Sun and Earth  Milky Way Galaxy: a flattened, disk-shaped mass estimated to contain nearly 400B stars and spiral arms  We are located within the Orion Arm  A black hole called Sagittarius sits in the middle  The solar system condensed from a large, slowly rotating and collapsing cloud of dust and gas called a nebula  Gravity is the mutual attracting force exerted by the mass of an object upon all other objects, was the key force in this condensing solar nebula  The early protosun grew in mass at the centre, drawing orward more matter, which solidified into PLANETS o There are approximately 250 planets outside of the Milky Way  Plantenesimal Hypothesis/dust-cloud hypothesis: explains how suns condense from nebular clouds with planetesimals forming in orbits about the central mass  The speed of light is 300,000 kps o Light year: how fast light travels In one year’s time  Earth’s orbit around the Sun is currently elliptical- a closed, oval path o Perhelion: closest position to Sun during Northern Hemisphere winter o Aphelion: farthest position from the Sun during Northern Hemisphere summer  These are partial causes to seasons Solar Energy: From Sun to Earth  The sun captured 99.9% of matter from original solar nebula o Remaining matter formed planets, satellites, asteroids, comets, debris  Solar mass produces tremendous pressure and high temperatures deep in its dense interior o As a result, hydrogen atoms are forced together into nuclei through fusion, and helium is formed  Solar Wind: the sun’s emitting of charged particles (hydrogen nuclei and free electrons)  Sunspots: surface disturbances on the Sun due to magnetic storms, up to 12x Earth’s diameter  Sunspot cycle ranges from 7-17 years  Magnetosphere: magnetic field surrounding Earth; generated by dynamo-like motions within our planet. Deflects solar winds to Earth’s Poles, to protect the atmosphere  Aurora borealis/australis: interaction of the solar wind and upper layers of Earths’ atmosphere  Satellites collecting solar wind info includes SOHO, FAST, WIND, Ulysses, Dynamics Explorer, Genesis  Solar Constant: average insolation received at the thermopause when Earth is at its average distance from the Sun; value is 1372w/msqd  Subsolar Point: only point receiving insolation perpendicular to the surface; location varies from year to year; all other angles receive insolation at under 90 degrees o This is the cause for hours of daylight both in the tropics (always 12h days) and in Northern/Southern areas (varies by season)  Global Net Radiation: Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instrumen
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