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Chapter 3

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Michael Imort

GG102 CHAPTER 3 Demography- the study of the characteristic of the human population geographers focus on the spatial patterns of human populations, the implications, and the reasons for them Census- a count in the number of people in a country, region, or city; most also gather information about population such as previous residence, marital status, occupation, income, and other personal data can only record a snapshot view (cross-section) of a population on the day the censes was conducted Vital records- report births, deaths, marriages, divorce, and the incidences of certain infectious diseases collected on provincial and territorial levels of government track change overtime, but can only do so for a limited number of variables Family reconstitution- process of reconstructing individual and family life histories by linking together separately recorded birth, marriage, and death data Administrative record linkage- links together a number of different databases so governments are able to not only build up ad detailed picture of individuals but also update the picture very regularly may seem like the ideal solution at first, but there are problems: hold much greater potential for data leakage, loss of privacy, and identity theft than a census, and collects fewer data points per person  Almost all the world’s inhabitants live on 10% of the land, most live near the shores of oceans and seas or along rivers, 90% live north of the equator (63% of the earth’s land is located here), and most of the world’s population lives in temperate, low-lying areas with fertile soils Crude density (arithmetic density) ratio- the total number of people divided by the total land area limitation is that it tells us very little about the variations that exist across the area population geographers also examine population in terms of its composition (the subgroups that constitute it) Baby boom- the generation that includes those born in the two decades following world war II  Women with high levels of education, socioeconomic security, and opportunities for work outside of the home have fewer children Geodemographic analysis- the practice of assessing the location and composition of particular populations Age-sex pyramid- most common way for demographers to represent the composition of the population bar graph displayed horizontally males on the left, females on the right age goes from youngest at the bottom to oldest on top Cohort- group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience may be defined by age, time of marriage, year of graduation, etc Dependency ratio- the measure of the economic impact of the young and old on the more economically productive members of the population Youth cohort- people less than 15 years old who are generally too young to be in the workforce challenges the Canadian educational system with the problems of enrollment declines and school closures as the number of students shrink consumer preferences are being influenced by a much older demographic Middle cohort- 15 to 64 years of age, these people are considered to be economically active and productive currently, the boomers occupy the upper ranks of many institutions and corporations, and they also control most of Canada’s person wealth (as much as 50%) boomers are supposed to retire in large numbers from around the year 2020 and onward this age group effects our housing marker the most and is the form of our cities and towns as this population ages, the demand for cottages in rural areas will decrease and people will seek the lifestyle and health care amenities of urban centres Old-age cohort- population aged 65 and older, considered to be beyond their active years focus on health care and pension provision, health care costs are magnified number of people over 65 in Canada has doubles over the last three decades, it will double again in 2036 around 2017, Canada will have more senior citizens than children cohort made up of more women than men pension premiums have increased to cover the cost of more seniors with less middle aged people paying the pension plan Victoria and Kingston has a higher old-aged population because old people move to these cities Saskatchewan and Labrador have had young people move out, which increases the ratio of old people  In Canada, fewer children are being born, and our population is aging  Canada’s boom years were from 1947-1966  Overall birth rates have decreased since then, except for two periods of increase: Baby boom “echo”: the children of the large baby boom cohort The “echo” of the echo: the children of these children; we are currently experiencing it Solutions have been put in place for the increase of the old-aged cohort: Pronatalism- providing incentives for people to have children government of Quebec issued “baby bonus” cheques in reality, this shouldn’t happen Increased economic productivity- economy that is more productive, pay higher taxes, health insurance, and pension premiums Immigration- “policy lever” to fuel economic growth is now promoted by the federal government as a solution to the problems of an aging population Crude birth rate (CBR)- the ratio of the number of live births in a single year for every thousand people in the population may be heavily affected by the demographic structure of the population, the age-sex pyramids, religion, social customs, politics, war, available birth control methods, etc highest fertility rates occur in Africa, the poorest region in the world Fertility- the childbearing performance on individuals, couples, groups or populations Total fertility rate (TFR)- the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (approx. ages 15-49) a population with a TFR of slightly higher than 2.0 has achieved replacement-level fertility Doubling time- measure of how long it’ll take the population to double world population is increasing at 1.8% (it will double in 40 years) Crude death rate (CDR)-the ratio of the number of deaths in one year for every thousand people in the population countries with low birth rates usually have low death rates a population with more men and elderly people usually mean higher death rates also influenced by health care availability, social class, occupation, place of residence, etc  Difference between CBR and CDR is the rate of natural increase (surplus of births over deaths) or decrease (deflect of births to deaths) Infant mortality rate- the annual number of deaths of infants less than one year of age compared with the total number of live births for that same year used as an important indicator of a country’s health care system and access to health care Child mortality- the number of children who die before their fifth birthday, measured relative to every 1000 live births Life expectancy- the number of years an individual can expect to live epidemics are a key influence (AIDS page 113) Demographic transition- model of population chance when high birth and death rates are replaced by low birth and death rates once a society moves from a pre-industrial economic base to an industrial one, population growth slows pre-industrial, transitional, transitional, industrial the high birth and death rates of the pr
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