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Chapter 24

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Barbara Carmichael

Chapter 24 Notes  Tourism offers an alternative economic activity to primary and secondary industries,(if there is a lack of development choices for a less developed country)  Telfer and Sharpley: tourism may bring benefits and impacts in terms of environmental, economic, sociocultural and political issues, gov and planners have to make critical decisions on the tradeoffs to be made when developing tourism  Tourism will be created in one location at the expense of another  Countries seeks external capital and multinational corporations to invest in tourism  Less developed counties offer a taste of the exotic, an opportunity to encounter different cultures and to experience an unspoiled environment  1:5 international tourist trips are to less developed countries and their climate, culture, and environment combine to form tourism  Less developed = in south America, Africa, south Asia and south pacific  Webster defines development as the replacement of traditional values with modern ones  Fourth world is a term to define the least developed countries  LDC characteristic o High birth rate and population pressures o Fast rate of urbanization o Limited economic base o High unemployment o Low literacy rate o Low levels of industrial production  First world = westernized countries with capitalist political and economic structures = developed  Second world = less wealthy, communist = transitional  Third = poor countries = south = less developed or developing  Less developed = average income less than 355 per year and literacy rate less than 20 %  Development has been measures in terms of economic measure of GNP, economic growth rate and employment structure  United nations development programme uses the HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX which integrates welfare and economic aspects  Low ranking countries such as Laos Tourism Development o Agel suggest three stage in tourism research which typify the changing perspectives on tourism development in LDC o 1 stage: 1950 to 1970 the time of great expansion and hope for future economic benefits. Tourism was considered as a tool for economic development and generator of foreign exchange o 2 stage: 1970 to 1986 = disenchantment period = the value of economic benefits was brought into question ard a more critical approach to tourism development ensued = hopes for tourism not been fulfilled o 3 stage: 1985 = differentiation period = emergence of alternative forms of tourism, such as ecotourism = planning for a better future  If tourism is viewed as a political tool then: o A way of obtaining hard currency and improving balance of payments through admitting large numbers of Western tourists o A catalyst of social change, with closer contract btw indigenous community and the tourist o A symbol of freedom, allowing citizens to travel freely within and outside their own country o A mechanism for improving local infrastructure to cater for tourist need, thereby benefiting local people o An integral part of economic restructuring through privatization, exposure to national and international market forces and transnational corporations o A complement to commercial development through growth of business tourism market as well as through encouraging small scale entrepreneurial activity  Many countries have develop a diversified product base for tourism o Resort based tourism (small island and coastal areas) o Business and conference based tourism o Ecotourism and wildlife tourism in Africa o Cultural tourism, more community based o VFR tourism, as migrants return to see their families and relative such as Europe to Indian Oppermann and Chon state tourism is least important in peripheral regions Pacific illustrates tourism by 4 factors 1. Power and influence with tourism often controlled by foreign companies 2. Foreign tourist demands often not met by local service provision 3. General conditions of underdevelopment, such as structural disadvantages, influence the direction of tourism growth and development 4. Difficult for host communities to take control of tourism supply  Outcome of enclave tourism = host national are often unable to break out of the poverty trap and the benefits of tourism do not filter through to those in need  Gov can directly influence the direction of tourism development but decide not to invest in tourism infrastructure  Gov give financial incentives such as tax breaks, easing of rules on foreign labour and subsidies to foreign investors to develop facilities  Gov policy be centralized with little involvement of local communities  How much money generate compared to how it can be to eliminate poverty  Swarbrooke says problem of tourism is the low priced package holidays  Often resorts are in remote area and do not take account of local community needs  Need to import luxury goods to meets the needs of enclave tourists  Mowfourth and Munt framework o Intervention and commoditisation: natural and cultural resources are transformed
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