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Chapter 4

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Barbara Carmichael

Chapter 4 notes Understanding the Tourist as a Consumer Hall and Page Question “why do tourist travel” – related to social psychology -it is the choice given to people -time and finance = factors Effect on leisure behaviour -gender, age, social class, retirement, unemployment, social relationships, personality and socializating Motivating & decision making - Moutinho says motivation = “a state of need a condition that exerts a push on the individual towards certain types of action that are seen as likely to bring satisfaction -Stimulated by economic, social, psychological, cultural, political, industry and environmental -Two reasons in understanding motivation and decision making 1. Planning consideration: plan and management and control of negative impact to divert tourist or activities away from vulnerable areas 2. Economic considerations: growth and development of tourism industry dependent on understanding consumer behaviour through market segmentation Motivation = open to interpretation to describe holiday to visit friends and relatives Two ways for decision making 1) Consumer identifies a need, looks for info on product, its cost, where it can be purchased, weight alternate of product and supplier, makes choice, consumes, finally makes judgement Ryan 1997 says 1. Social and personal interactions, such as the needs of others with whom the individual is travelling, whether there are children in the group, likely contact with service staff and host community 2. Travel experience, expectation of delays, comfort and ease of travel to destination 3. Destination specific factors, such as the quality of the accommodation and facilities, and historical or other interests, which may act as a particular draw for tourists 4. Personal facts such as self confidence, personality, experience, lifestyle and life stage Stage 1 – consumer dominant assessment (no purchase) Stage 2 – producer dominant assessment (service delivery) Stage 3 – consumer dominant assessment (post consumption) Factors influencing purchase decisions 1. Personality 2. Sales person 3. Routine or new purchase 4. Preference 5. Prior experience 6. Point of purchase 7. Situation (surrounding, task, definition) Behaviour pattern: individual propensity to experience new places Responsive mechanisms, authentic experience, social skills and feeling at ease Patmore constraints 1. Desire 2. Ability 3. Mobility 194th– consumer inexperience as purchaser of tourism package 20 century – discern and demand of their own tourism Hogg (2005) -become more knowledgeable, demanding and thinking Middleton & Clarke says demand tourism based on 1. Increase affluence 2. Better education 3. More experience of travel, including international travel 4. More culturally diverse travelling population 5. Greater exposure to the media and other forms of information Motive to travel - cultural/ heritage - sport - Events - Food and wine - Visiting friends and relatives - Business - Religious - Health related - Education Maslow hierarchy of needs 1. Physiological needs 2. Safety 3. Social 4. Esteem 5. Self actualization “push and pull factors” Dann 1977 Push = propel a desire to travel Pull = influence which destination selected, given initial push Gilbert 1991 4 stages of push and pull 1. Energizers of demand: motivation, initiate decisions to visit an attraction or go on holiday 2. Effectors of demand: info about a destination by various means (brochure, media) – develop own idea and perception, which increase or decrease travelling 3. Roles and decisions making: holiday allowed to take off from work and family member will affect where and when 4. Filtered of demand: demographics and socio economic constraints and opportunities Tourism gaze: tourist with interest and curiosity which leads to expectation Dann – 7 perspectives on tourist (picture above) 1. Travel as a response to what is lacking yet desired -desire for something new or diff which cannot be provided at home environment 2. Destination pull in response to motivational push -need and want (push factor) -shaped by perception of destination (pull factor
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