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Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Summary gg294.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GG294
Professor
Barbara Carmichael
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 19 Summary  Description of a destination = unspoilt  Tourism development has led to a deterioration in environmental quality  Debate about environmental consequences and the desirability of further development  1960 the effect of mass tourism and increasing awareness of human impact on environment led to a general realization that nature is not an inexhaustible resource  Young 1973 Bless or Blight  Krippendorf 1987 The Holidaymakers – Europe focus to a more widespread pattern, covering less developed countries and new, exotic and extreme locations  Environmentally sensitive forms of tourism such as ecotourism and wildlife based tourist = major environmental concerns  Environmental effects have led to direct threats to the industry as the success in attracting tourist leads to negative impacts on the attractiveness of the environment  Mathieson and Wall 1982, main problem is that of disentangling the effects of tourism from the effects of human existence  “a proper understanding of biological, or more specifically, ecological factors can significantly reduce the scale of environmental damage associated with recreational and tourist development  Gossling 2002 globally tourism contributes to  Changes in land use, as tourism is a major consumer of land  Energy use as tourism may be a major consumer of fossil fuels  Extinction of wild species  The geographical spread of disease such as SARS and avian flu  Changes to the perception of the environment which becomes a resource to be consumed as part of an experience  Tourism and the new environment is complex and may be viewed from three perspectives  Demonstrates the holistic approach to the term environment which includes the natural and Sociocultural interface 1. Tourist environment interactions 2. Tourist host interactions 3. Host environment interactions  Relationships break down problems inevitably ensure  Mieczkowski 1995 says “combination of non living i.e. a biotic, physical components, with biological resources, or the biosphere, including flora and fauna”  Tourism and the environment are closely links without an attractive environment, tourism cannot succeed and in some cases without tourism environmental conservation is at risk  Symbiotic relationship exists between tourism and the environment: each is dependent upon the other for maintaining a balance so that if the environment deteriorates it will directly impact upon tourism  Attractive environment = sun, sea and sun to the undoubted appeal of historic sites and structures, the environment is the foundation of the tourist industry  Farrell and Runyan suggest that natural resources, the ecosystem, regional ecology contribute to all tourist locations emphasizing the need to recognize environmental impacts The Nature and scope of the environmental impacts of tourism 1. Travel 2. Tourism destination development 3. Tourism associated activities Travel  Increasing levels of transport on roads and in the air in industrialized nations and the consequent wider effects on the environment and human health  Enabling travel is an essential criterion for tourism; roads, cars, aircraft and airports are all needed to permit the easy passage of tourists from home to destination and back again  Negative effects are the pollution of the natural environment and damage to the quality of landscapes  Balance is required between these two aspects but this is not readily achievable  Gossling examined the eco efficiency of tourism by examining its energy efficiency in relation to economic performance  Tourist travel is responsible for around 50 percent of all global travel and is a major consumer of fossil fuel  Seychelles tourism was seven times less eco efficient than tourism in France which consumer only 10 percent to the global average for tourism, he concluded that at current estimates tourism is not sustainable as an economic activity  Air travel for UK o During 1970 – 2002 air travel rose from 32 million to 189 million passengers o By 2020 there will be 350 – 460 million passengers o Half the UK population now flies once a year, 70 percent of which flights are destined overseas o The economy increasingly depends upon air travel for exports, tourism and inward investment Air travel  1 billion now travel by air  Damage caused to the environment starts before the aircraft even takes off  Airports require substantial tracts of land in order to operate safely and efficiently  Destruction linked with building an airport is significant  Half a million of trees are destructed by building airports  Aircraft account for 13 percent of total transport fuel consumption  Kerosine produces o Carbon dioxide o Water o Carbon monoxide o Hydrocarbons o Nitrogen oxide o Sulphur dioxide  Emission standards for unburned hydrocarbons CO2 and NOx are laid down for new aircraft by the international civil aviation organization but these only apply to take off and landing  Key factor in the environmental effect of air travel = altitude  Emissions have a greater impact because of the highly sensitive regions where they are emitted  Nitrogen oxide = 1 – 1.5 million tonnes per year in the lower atmosphere lead to ozone formation at ground level and urban smog, and contribute to global warming  Royal commission on environment notes their concerns o Climate change including green house gases o The reduction of ozone in the stratosphere contributing to increased surface ultraviolet radiation o Regional pollution downwind from airports and local pollution in terms of noise, decreased air quality and additional ground transportation pollution from airport expansion  Gossling says a psychology of denial among many in the aviation sector who point to future energy efficient technology to reduce emissions in spite of the year on year growth in air travel  Introduction of voluntary carbon offsetting schemes as a method for compensating for the production of greenhouse gases by air travel, given the obligations on governments to reduce these emissions under the Kyoto protocol  British airways first to introduce voluntary carbon offset scheme for passenger for asking them to donate  Airline also joined carbon trading scheme lobbying for all EU airlines to now be part of such a scheme from 2011  Companies receive a carbon allowance and if they exceed their allowance = three options o Cut their emissions through the use of new technology o Purchase carbon allowances from other companies o Combination of purchasing allowances and investing in new technology Tourism destination development  Inappropriate development, loss of habitat, extinction of species, pollution and loss of spirit = extent of tourism development  European Environment Agency = tourism creates significant contributions to the following environmental problems o Waste o Reducing levels of biodiversity o Pollution of inland waters o Pollution of marine and coastal zones British Airways environmental report  Turnover of 8.4 billion on 2006/2007  Operated a fleet of 242 aircraft in 2006/2007 to 147 destinations in 75 countries  Noise= noise reduction targets with a 5.8 percent reduction 2002- 2003  Emission, fuel efficiency and energy = global warming and green house gas arising from aviation are significant as BA estimated that civil aviation accounts for 400 – 500 million tonnes of carbon dioxide  Congestion = most pressing problems it faces o cost of additional fuel burnt due to congestion was 3.6 million o delays = more fuel burnt Airline emissions  Lake environments = known as lacustrine systems = illustrate many of the impacts which visitors may pose to natural resources, including damage to fauna, algal growth, discharge of sewage, bank erosion, trampling on lakeshores, increased turbidity due to water skiing and jet skiing and the impact on water birds due to noise pollution and disturbance  Lowering of water levels due to overuse of water, rapid siltation due to increase run off to deforestation, acidification due to acid precipitation, contamination by toxic pollutants and eutrophication due to the inflow of nutrients  European context, the environments which tend to be most directly affected by tourism are coastal and alpine area  Habitat = the place in which a species of animal or plant lives, providing a particular set of environmental conditions  Two types of environmental impact which occur in destination development o Those affecting the integrity and composition of natural environment o Those affecting the tourist experience of the environment  The effects of trampling on vegetation induce direct environmental change whereas overcrowding affects tourist enjoyment but has a different overall impact on the natural environment  Kavallinis and Pizam = tourism impacts on the Greek island of Mykonos that tourists were more critical of impacts than the host community  Tourists considered residents and entrepreneurs to have greater responsibility for producing negative environmental impacts  Residents believed that they were to blame for much of the environment impact  Tourists damage the environment = there is in reality a complexity of interactions, decision making, economic imperative and responsibilities which affect the outcome  WWF developed an ecological footprint to help tourists to understand how different types of holidays affect the environment in terms of the consumption of resources and impacts Major environmental impacts of tourism in destination 1. Inappropriate development  Micro or macro scale may be classed as inappropriate where it fails to be sensitive to the natural environment  Large tracts of the Mediterranean coastal strip are now covered by urban sprawl to cater for the mass tourism market  Theroux describes the Spanish coast as utterly blighted and continues “ I felt intensely that the Spanish coast, especially here on the Costa del Sol, has undergone a powerful colonisation, of a modern kind, it had robbed the shore of its natural features displaced headlands and gullies and harbours, while futile badly made structures  Development occurs as a result of short term planning in environmental terms  Resort developments while contained on specific sites are normally built on green field sites in undeveloped areas often with no planning control  Chain reaction of tourism related development follows  Waikiki area of Honolulu has also been subject to high density tourism development with skyscraper hotels obscuring views of the coast  Newly developing resorts in less developed countries are also displaying signs of unplanned development such as Pattaya in Thailand which is considered to be overdeveloped  Inappropriate development has been removed: the poorly built hotels of Calvia, Mallorca were demolished in the late 1990s to make way for environmental enhancements  England National trust has been active in turning the ride of inappropriate developments  Kynance cove Cornwall, the Trust demolished unsightly cafes and shop buildings which had contributed to site erosion as visitors would follow a particular route past them  Trust re rerouted the paths, restoring the damaged ground surface and controlling the movement of visitors to reduce the physical impact of visitors to the site  Cause conflict with the local community , some local businesses are dependent on visitors who stay on such sites Summary of environmental impacts in specific habitats Habitats influenced Effect of tourism development Marine waters Pollution from sewage outfall Dumping of waste in the sea Oil pollution front tourist boats Litter and threat to marine creatures Coastal habitats Habitat loss and fragmentation Deterioration in ecological diversity Destabilization of sand dunes Erosion of coastal landscape Inland waters Sewage pollution Eutrophication Oil pollution from boats and barges Disturbance of bird communities by watercraft Upland heaths, mires and tundra Erosion Habitat loss and fragmentation Disturbance to nesting birds Agricultural land Loss of area for production Conflict between adjacent agricultural uses and tourism Semi natural grasslands Loss of open landscape Habitat loss Heathlands, scrub, rocky area Habitat loss and fragmentation Forests Habitat loss and fragmentation Disturbance from recreational activities 2. Loss of natural habitat and effects on wildlife  Development of facilities and subsequent tourist may result in rapid or more gradual effect on habitat  Nepal deforestation resulting in the felling of thousands of trees for building tourist lodges and provision of hot water, heating and cooking fuel word has resulted in a dramatic depletion of country’s forest cover o One trekker consumers five to ten more wood than a Nepali in a day and a single lodge may consume on hectare of virgin forest per year for running facilities o Trampling through walking or horse riding causes disturbance to vegetation and soil o Reduced ground vegetation cover or loss of tree seedling through trampling causes soil to become exposed and therefore vulnerable to both erosion and compaction  Tourism and nature conservation can coexist in mutual benefit and it is possible to identify a number of examples of instances where tourism has incurred costs and benefits  Golden toad known only to exist in the Monteverde cloud rain forest in Costa rice which is on the verge of extinction  Orange coloured toad on postcards and on entrance signs to one of the most popular lodges in the area has declined in numbers at the same time as ecotourism has evolved in the area  Alien organism brought in by eco tourists may have caused a plague  Loggerhead turtle, Prunier Sweeney and Green provide evidence for this having studied the turtles on the Greek island of Zakynthos = m
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