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GS 101 Global Studies Notes

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Global Studies
Dorotea Gucciardo

Global Studies Sept 11 Dr. Dorotea Gucciardo ([email protected]) Office: DAWB 5-129 Tuesday and Thursday with a P.A. on Fridays Textbooks: Manfred Steger, Globalization: A Very Short Intro 2009 Brian Orend, Introduction to International Studies 2013 Grade Distribution 1. Case study (30%) 2. Peer-assisted learning sessions (10%) 3. Mid Term Exam (25%) 4. Final Exam (35%) PASS INFO tutorials signed up through loris ARE pass every friday, sessions are 80 minutes long BRING YOUR ONE CARD so they check attendance [email protected] [email protected] < global studies library lady, go to her to find resources for your subject Extension X2202 office is the third floor of the library (3-320) GLOBAL STUDIES •Very inter connective. People from all around the world can connect by media, i.e. Facebook, twitter, myspace, etc •Conflicts, on what happened if countries collapsed •About countries, businesses, and people who's lives have changed as our world becomes increasingly more inter connective INTER DISCIPLINARY Using different insights from different fields. Global studies tries to incorporate several different views (i.e. economics would be one view) AD JAMMING Where you take familiar icons and distort it. Ie, Joe Camel (Camel cigarettes was turned into a picture of Joe Chemo) Sept 13 check the mylearningspace for textbook pages and info Many scholars of global studies point to the seattle riots as a pivotal moment in the anti globalization movement all over the world Anti-Globalizers lower wages higher unemployment lower health and safety standards (benefits) weaker government less protection for developing industries Pro-Globalizers better access to international markets increased competition cheaper goods and services. cost less to produce in country A and cost less to sell at country B less government regulation (have more freedom to trade with whoever they want) lower taxes (lower taxes for the corporate giants) increased innovation. we get new products, ideas, etc believes globalizers phenomenon of paradoxes one the one hand leads to further integration but at the same time is dividing us Manfred Steger "A set of social processes that appear to transform our present social condition of weakening nationality into one of globality" Meaning that globalization is NOT an event not a singular process. BUT IS a multiple, on going, interdependent actions and operations relates specifically to human society they create and expand networks and connections among humans hints at deterritorialization signifying a social condition that is a tight, economic, political, cultural connection these connections make existing borders irrelevant „ September 25, 2012 Neoliberalism Looking at relations all around the globe Pushed for more free trading Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan Neoliberalism is referring specifically economic liberalism, not political liberalism Conservatives, tend to embrace neoliberalism Advocates free trade and open markets Privatization vs public investment The idea if theres freedom for capital (Freedom for goods and services to move) within a market that is self regulating it will create a triple down effect of wealth distribution The easier it is for countries to access goods from other countries, then the benefits that they receive will triple down Also includes social services and education Want the market to self regulate itself Want privatization for everything, Ie, Water and internet - For neo liberals are under the assumption the market it a good thing - From a power perspective free trade is seen as a continuation of old policies of old plunder - Where countries are going into developing nations and exploiting and taking what they want (goods) - Growth hasn‟t been taking place in an effort to feed, cloth, and house the poor. Only feeding the consumerists needs in a developed world - Half of the worlds population, half of humanity, live off of $2 a day - 86% of the worlds resources are consumed by 20% of the worlds wealthiest - Former World Bank Chief Economist Joseph Stiglitz noted that if economic globalization in its current form continues without being checked, will lead to violence and global disaster (Gist) Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan During the Thatcher and Reagan era that neoliberalism was pushed all around the globe - Pushing a neoliberalism on the cold war (where the US and Soviet Union were plotted against each other. Capitalism vs Communism) - Capitalism: An economic system in which private business operates in competition with one another in largely free of state control - Communism: An economic system with no private business nor any sort of private property ideal and complete state control especially over economic and public life The Role Of Thatcher and Reagan in the They have the motive of removing trade barriers around the world and do free trade. We HAVE multi national organization that would benefit from free trade. Theres a unity between the state of objectives. GATT came to play in 1947 to regulate the world trade economy. Reagan and Thatcher decided to rewrite the rules of GATT. They had much influence to see what route GATT would take on. Reagan and Thatcher‟s ideas were basically the strongest ideas. Being from the 2 strongest countries as well, they had most power on what was being said and ruled. WTO Rules Non discrimination Transparency Favour to favour (treat me well, I‟ll treat you well) Pros and Cons of Capitalism Pros - Capitalism promotes economic growth by providing an open competition in the market. - It provides individuals with far better opportunities of raising their income and thus achieving economic growth - Encourages new innovations - Globalization - More diverse products - Equal opportunity to start business - Decentralized economic system Middle - Survival of the fittest - Free enterprise (not totally controlled) - Reduce barrier to trade - Increased productivity competition Cons - Difficult to maintain power because of the competitors - Capitalism doesn‟t always support national made goods (mostly intended for foreign investment) - Would see capitalism and the economy as just a money oriented and materialistic. Doesn‟t care for the quality - More really rich people and more really poor people - Lower wages - Monopoly power - Exploit position to charge higher price Trickle Down Theory: Companies come in and provide work and work gives the people money to spend on the countries Example: The Philippines. In the free trade zones they open them up to allow companies come in. Once they‟re in they‟ll be working in those factories, the money will go to their workers families and those families spend the money on the economy October 2, 2012 Pearson called it a halt to the bombings in Vietnam by the US. Lyndon B. Johnson was furious about Pearson telling him what to do, especially with Vietnam. At the start of the first world war, Canada we went to war because Britain went to war. Same thing for the war is 1939. Until the second world war, whatever Britain did, Canada followed. The british empire began to fall apart because they lost all their money from fighting 2 world wars. Canada by 1945 found itself in a unique situation: they were linked to Great Britain and also was next to an arising super power, US. No one doubted if the US went to war with the Soviet Reunion that Canada would be involved as well. Canadas shift: To Colony (Great Britain) to Nation to Colony (the US) Middle power: A nation of middling strength. Canada. Mackenie King: Prime minister until 1948, 1945-1957: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The US and Canada meet in secret, eventually bringing in Western European democracies in as well. NATO marked a historic moment for the US and Canada. Both countries omitted themselves in advance to Western European. Guaranteed the spot that if the Soviet reunion fought they were safe/with them. 1957-63: Diefenbaker was in charge and Canada‟s relationship with the US began to deteriorate. This was when John F Kennedy was in charge and he did not get along with Diefenbaker. When he took office, there was a joint defence agreement was in the works between the 2 nations. The idea: How to defend themselves from bombing attacks from the Soviet reunion. Wanted to combine both defenses. NORAD: North American Air Defense Command The American military put such pressure on the Canadian military to sign the NORAD Diefenbaker developed a mistrust for army officials. Was not open to advice from generals. He signed the agreement right away. NORAD symbolized “take Canada for gratitude” to Diefenbaker. In 1961 an American spy aircraft discovered the Soviet reunion was installing missiles on a Cuban basis. The range of the missiles were aimed for various American states. Kennedy saw this as a threat to American security and in deep secretcy was planning to act. His plan was to mount a naval blockade around the island and demand the soviet reunion to remove the missiles. This had the support of NORAD but not the support of Canada. This was because Diefenbaker is stubborn. Although he agreed to unite the defense forces, he refused to put Canadian aircraft on alert to mimic the US. Felt that would frighten the Canadian people. An official went behind Diefenbakers back and alerted them anyways. Kennedy told Diefenbaker to put his troops in alert but Diefenbaker refused. October 24 the crisis was over and the Americans would not forget Diefenbakers wobbling. Did not leave a good impression on Kennedy either, 1963-1968 In the spring of 1964 Canada and Pearson had a large role in participating in a UN Peace keeping force sent to cyprus to prevent a war between Greece and turkey. In 1962, Canada had imported 642 million in autos and parts from the US and exported 62 million. Ottawa wanted to bring those numbers into balance. The gov solution was to set up an export scheme to allow auto plants in Canada to import goods from the US duty free. In order for this to work they need cooperation from the US. Talk began in 1964 and in 1965 a deal was put into place (The Auto Pact). Seen as a Canadian victory. All duties were eliminated on all automobile things. This ensure the automobile industry would expand and grow in the US. Pearson hailed it as one of the most important accords ever signed between us 2 countries. Why did the US agree? Because Pearson sent those troops to Cyrprus, Johnson felt obligated to do him a favour. Also in 1965 was the ongoing war in Vietnam. Johnson believed that doing this for him, he would send Canadian troops to the war in Vietnam. Peason never did. Many people thought they didn‟t express enough independence. An anti American sentiment prevailed during the Trudeau years (1968-1976). He wanted to keep the country together. Was pitted against Richard Nixon. Canada‟s main concern was to maintain trade with the Us. Canada was America‟s biggest source of imports and remains today the US‟s largest customer. For Trudeau, that was a problem. It is difficult to be independent went tied down to one specific market. This became obvious in 1971 when Richard Nixon announced he had to tackle a growing American deficit. So from now on all goods will now be charged with a 10% surcharge. Trudeau commented if the Americans wanted Canadian to purchase shit from Canada they had to reassess their relationship. Trudeau had said the danger of Canada‟s identity was cultural and economic coming from the US. Was more of a threat to Canada than the Soviet union. The surcharge on Canadian goods was lifted after. 1984- Mulroney (Da minister) Had no direct experience in foreign policy, but had a detailed knowledge of the united states. Thanks to Mulroney on why we have free trade with the US. 73% of our exports heading south, US is our main guy. Has brought new techniques and shit to Canadian centres. Has result in foreign ownership but also has been a huge factor in the Canadian economy. The National Policy was created in 1879 but John A McDonald (the first prime minister) and raised Canadian and US economic revelations. The goal of the national policy was to provide tariff protection from Canadian shit and primary goods that could be manufactured into Canada. By removing the duties by incoming goods would make the products themselves cheaper. Was called the NATIONAL policy because it was supposed to be national and let the Canadian economy grow. It actually encouraged American investors to create plants and shit to get over the tariff protection. To exploit the benefits of the National Policy, they set up branches and shops in Canada. By 1960 Canadians started to care because how many Americans were now involved in the economy but at first didn‟t care. Wanted to reduce their involvement. In 1985 when Mulrooney became in power, he asked the American gov to do a Free Trade Policy between US and Canada. The result came on Janruary 1 1989 where all tariffs between the 2 countries were supposed to be eliminated in a 10 year period. The North American Free Trade Agreement came into play and also added in Mexicans into it. It was to appear to give Canada more access to the US and their shit there, but looked like Canadas were losers. Canada was to eliminate any restrictions on American take overs of Canadian companies. Another restriction was Canada could not require American Trade to sell their shit to Canadians. Also could not favour their domestic economy. Had a tough time negotiating with the states, being so small. In the 1960s people were opposed to this and so Economic Nationalism happened (the made in Canada shit) The goal of economic nationalism was to achieve greater control of the domestic economy especially when American investment. A major concern of economic nationalist was the multi national corporation because they had their head office in the US and was making decisions of Canadians while in the states. As of 2010 was the largest trade block in the world. [email protected] October 9, 2012 Globalization and the Environment Share one atmosphere that provides climate protection for the entire planet. When we pollute the air, that pollution also moves across other continents. Need coordinated global or regional governance The increased economic integration between nations coincided a the same time of the environmental movement Put in (national parks) to preserve ecosystems. Started in 1910 and started in the western world. Most popular in Australia and north America Environmentalism The view of humankind must seek for peaceful coexistence with nature (side by side) not to dominate it In the industrial world: Pollution (air) and dangerous chemicals have built up. By the 1960’s, wealth has accumulated to the point that we could afford to care about the environment. Rachel Carson Carson was a zoologist that had sharp criticisms for the use of chemicals in the US. In 1962 she published a book called “Silent Spring”. Primary argument was about DDT which was used a pesticide as being the culprit of affecting and injuring birds and also humankind. Silent spring refers to the birds not singing anymore in the spring. The book helped the banning of DDT which happened in 1973 in the US. In the 1960s many North Americans and some of Europe started to see the air pollution. Earth day founded in 1970 brought about 20 million people together to start caring. By 1990, 200 mil people started participating in Earth day. Tropical deforestation in 1980 (rainforest bulldozing) Thinning of the ozone layer in 1980 (the use of CFC and other chemicals) Pollution was no longer a sign of industrial wealth, was now seen as a crime against humanity. By the 1990s people wanted multinational corporations to see what is happening to the Earth because of their use of shit put into the environment In the 1980‟s oil and chemical firms started caving in and starting to show a change (publicly) with regards to green actions Transnational Corporations (TNC) are moving their corps into developing countries to avoid stricter rules with environmental standards and regulations. See a rapid exhaustion and transformation of ecologies. Have a wipe out of a particular environment and replacing with something else that may not be natural to the environment. In the 1950s central American forests have been cut down to make cattle ranches for the growing US demand of beef. Malaysian forests have been made into rubber plants, When NAFTA was expanded in 2007 to include Peru, a host of environmental groups warned that the Peru free trade agreement (FTA) would create incentives for the Peru government to sell off their Amazon rainforest to oil and gas companies. This is because part of the FTA guaranteed foreign forms new rights to acquire rainforest land, also with exploitation WTO: Also has a long history or overturning laws and regulations aimed at environmental sustainability Always finding ways to make it easier to trade In the US, WTO rulings have directly led to the Air Clean Act, to dolphin protection laws, to the endangered species act, and more. All to make it easier for corporations to sell their goods People aren‟t all equally responsible on causing climate change, but see the effects of it. Industrialized nations representing less than 20% of the worlds population account for 90% of annual green house gases. Majority comes through the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) Increased floods, rising sea temp, The willingness of countries around the word to cooperate in this initiative is very positive. In 1992 there was an Earth summit in Rio and an 18th month negotiation period led to the adoption of the UN framework convention on climate change (The United Nation is now concerned about the environment) 3 reasons why there was such limited progress 1. The element of paralysis. Such a big problem, how can we fix it? Governments and other people are too shocked 2. Powerful economic forces are feeding that paralysis. Bi
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