November 16, 2012
GS 201 tutorial questions
1.How does historical materialism (from Gramsci) differ from base (structure)-
superstructure (from Marx)?
Marxist theory lacked the inclusion of “sphere of the complex superstructures” like politics, law
and culture. For Gramsci this was a problem and he began further investigation Marx’s work to
critique its accuracy without the inclusion of these spheres.
2.What are historical blocs?
These are created by Sorel and fully understood the unity presented by the philosophy of praxis.
They are the basic acceptance of the social hierarchy in society and allow for dominant classes to
hold he power and assert force upon the other classes.
3. Why should the working class create 'organic' intellectuals of its own?
By creating organic intellectuals of their own the working class are able to create an alternative
hegemony within society but don’t necessarily need a revolution to do so. To do so there was a
need for popular workers’ education. They also needed to not only observe the class struggle but
change the understanding and allow for a broader understanding within the working class.
4. Should we be concerned with the 'unprecedented expansion' of intellectuals?
5. What is hegemony? Why is it important?
Hegemony is whem an indirect form of government dominance rules states with the threat of
force but without the actual use of military practices. (Ex. Dominance of a city-state over another
city-state) Hegemonies in this article can occur within a society because of dominant classes and
the social hierarchy. Hegemonies become important because the dominant class (upper class) is
able to use threat to enforce their will on the lower classes. This leads to class struggles and
problems within a society.
6. According to Hall, how can we apply Gramscian perspective to the analysis of racism?
We will also consider:
Is the role of intellectual (the inte