GS221 Chapter Notes -World War I, Zoroastrianism, Early Human Migrations

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Published on 30 Jan 2013
GS221 Reading
Paul Hopper: Understanding Cultural Globalization
Chapter 1: The History of Cultural Globalization
- globalization is very economic based
- used to be cultural exchange (trade stuff) now based on exchange of funds
Phases: pre-modern (prior to 1500)
Modern (1500- 1945)
Contemporary (1945 onwards)
1. Early human migration
2. The emergence of world religions
3. The early imperial systems
4. The development of Tran regional trade networks
- these ensured cross cultural encounters (ideas, beliefs and technology were exchanged and absorbed
1. Early Human Migrations:
- evidence of pre-modern world globalization
-Robert Clark - “global imperative” - the innate need for humanity to spread itself out, throughout
the world- the human need for globalization - we are a global species
2. The Emergence of World Religions
- serve to generate Tran regional allegiances and identities (Christianity *, Islam *, Buddhism,
Zoroastrianism and Hinduism) -carried outside their areas by travellers and traders
- the spread of religion also led to the development of writing (creation of core texts)
- many of these religions remained centered upon a region (* exceptions)
3. The Early Imperial Systems
- imperial ruling ekites saw some faiths as a way of ensuring/ displaying their own positions
- empires of the time and their religions were seen as globalizing factors (China, Roman Catholic)
- different cultures could be within the same empire *
- challenged local identities but allowed for cultural diffusion and the spread of ideas
- many emperors (social elites) had a global awareness
- bubonic plague/ spread of disease caused a decrease in trade/ travel within the empires and cross cultural
- varied impacts globally
4. Development of Tran regional Trade Networks
- long distance centered upon large cities, 3500 BCE first evidence
- Silk Route (for example) - linked Roman Empire to Chinese through land and sea routes
-China was a superpower with the West on the periphery
The Modern Phase of Globalization (1500- 1945)
1. European Imperialism
2. An Emerging International Economy
3. International Migration and Development Outside of the West
4. The Spread of Modernity
5. The Rise of the Nation-State
6. Industrialization
1. European Imperialism
- economic, political and military expansionism
- modern age= “rise of the West”
- 1942 - Columbus’ voyage to America- New World encounter
- led to flow of good/ people
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