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Chapter 3

PP230 Chapter 3: PP230 Part III

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Craig Beam

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Part III: Nonviolence Views Methods A) Violence Nonviolence: Sharp Gandhi have made efforts to explore human potential in area of nonviolence Principled (moral) Nonviolence (Holmes, Tolstoy, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr.): tend to conceive of nonviolence as integral to a way of life, rather than simply as an efficient way of achieving their goals justifies itself on moral grounds o M.K. Gandhi: essence of Gandhis doctrine is threefold: truth, nonviolence selfsacrifice When combined these elements form powerful principle of satyagraha The satyagrahi is one who tries to uncover truth about conflict one is in To get truth must be highly assertive (demands for change) receptive (receptive to relevant info about how change could be made to mutual satisfaction) Open to whatever will satisfy relevant human needs One must flow bw what one knows and doesnt know one knows indv.s involved in conflict have legitimate concerns which are being thwarted justice isnt being done One doesnt know what will make things right No one is nullified bc all human needs are considered o Martin Luther King Jr.: promoting nonviolence for black community says in any nonviolent campaign there are 4 steps 1. Collection of facts to determine whether injustices exist: clear in Birmingham injustices existed stores posted humiliating racial signs, unsolved cases of burnings of homes where black ppl lived 2. Negotiations: King other black leaders tried to negotiate, promises were made but nothing was kept 3. Selfpurification 4. Direct action: sitins, marches, protests, boycotts Encouraged black people to be patient remain passive telling them changes would happen Pragmatic (prudential) Nonviolence (Thoreau, Sharp): nonviolence as way of achieving certain socialpolitical goals justified on social, political or economic grounds B) Nonviolent Applications Need for Defence and the Loss of Military Effectiveness: Sharp insists we must be able to defend ourselves Modern military tech has all but ruined this ability the destructive capability of both conventional nuclear weapons raises questions about their defensive use There is no satisfactory defense against a nuclear attack Sharp believes it is a misconception to think that the capacity to wage war will make a population safe, since every war since WWI has witnessed an increase in civilian casualties Military power can only threaten, it cannot defence Functions of the War System: 4 main functions 1. Attack, as in military aggression 2. Domination, as in the control oppression of ppl 3. Deterrence, as in prevention of attack by causing ones adversary to anticipate greater losses than gains
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