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Chapter 11-2

PP247 Chapter 11-2: Unit 11- Reading 2

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Craig Beam

People or Penguins By: William Baxter We talk loosely of having clean air and clean water, of preserving wilderness areas, and so forth, but none of these is a sufficiently general objective: each is more accurately viewed as a means rather than as an end Questions of clarity regarding these issues are implicit demands for a more general community goal to be stated a goal sufficiently general in its scope and enjoying sufficiently general assent among the community of actors what such why Qs no longer seem admissible with respect to that goal Goals should be basic tenets of our civilization they reflect a cultural value so broadly shared, at least in the abstract The Q why? is seen as impertinent or imponderable or both A difficulty in the attempt to create a list of general objectives for society to subscribe to is that each new goal added will conflict, in certain applications, with each prior goal listed; and thus each goal serves as a limited qualification on prior goals 4 goals used as ultimate testing criteria in attempting to frame solutions to problems of human organization: The spheres of freedom criterion Every person should be free to do whatever he wishes in contexts where his actions do not interfere with the interests of other human beings Waste is a bad thing. The dominant feature of human existence is scarcityour available resources, our aggregate labours, and our skill in employing both have always been, and will continue for some time to be, inadequate to yield to every man all the tangible and intangible satisfactions he would like to have. Do not employ resources, labours, or skills so as to yield less than they might yield in human satisfactions Every human being should be regarded as an end rather than as a means to be used for the betterment of another. Each should be afforded dignity and regarded as having an absolute claim to an evenhanded application of such rules as the community may adopt for its governance Both the incentive and the opportunity to improve his share of satisfactions should be preserved to every individual Dictated by the no waste criterion and enjoins against the continuous, totally egalitarian redistribution of satisfactions or wealth; but subject to that constraint everyone should receive, by continuous redistribution if necessary, some minimal share of aggregate wealth so as to avoid a level of privation from which the opportunity to improve his situation becomes illusory Justifying the wellbeing of a plant or animals life relates back to their + influence on human life e.x. Our enjoyment from seeing them Preserve flora and fauna to the degree humans depend on them
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