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Chapter 5-6

PO101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5-6: Neoliberalism, Leonard Hobhouse, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Political Science
Course Code
Dejan Guzina

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Ideologies have roots in philosophical through but are called to action!
- Are set of relate, generally consistent ideas and beliefs that provides a basis for political
o Focused on the material and physical, not spiritual
- Have core concepts, hierarchy of values (i.e. liberals focus on individual, nationalist on
- Reflect and shape social and historical circumstances in which they develop
- Traditional ideologies were shaped by the Enlightenment
- But ideologies reflect current conditions can evolve
Many of the 115,00 who came to Canada over 8 decades (late 1860s 1948) provide cheap
labour and suffered abuse
- Known as British Home children
- Were told they were only there to work
- Physically abused, whipped, beat, sexually abused.
- 4 million Canadians are descendants of British Home Children
Ideology is
Images (Reflections and impressions of reality)
Attitudes (Implicit Assumptions)
Values (Standardized normative views of the world)
Beliefs (Certainties and faith in values)
Ideology (Sets of beliefs as to how the political system should be organized)
Competing views of Ideology
- Ideology might be thought of in the same way as religion
o They both have preconditions and assumptions
o Both have fundamental beliefs
o Neither can be proved right
o Both are the basis of action for people
- Marxist View
o The ideas of the ruling class that uphold the class system and justify/perpetuate
o … the lass hih is rulig aterial fore i soiet is at the sae tie the ruling
intellectual force
o Ideology is false and its role is to confuse subordinate classes in society
- Conservative View
o Ideologies are abstract systems of thought that distort political reality by
explaining incomprehensible
o Conservativism is not ideology but an attitude of mind, placing its faith in
pragmatism, tradition, and history (Michael Oakeshott)
- Liberal View
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- Often traced to the rise of a capitalist political economy in seventeenth and eighteenth
century Europe
o Karl Popper: Ideology as an instrument of social control to ensure compliance an
subordination, an all-encompassing and closed system of thought (his critique of
totalitarian ideologies such as communism and fascism)
o In contrast to modern liberalism, conservativism, and democratic socialism are
open as they are committed to individual freedoms and tolerate opposing ideas
and rival beliefs
Left vs. Right Spectrum
Marxist Anarchist Socialist Liberal Conservative Fascist
Degree of Change
Direction of Change
Method of Change
- Dominant Western tradition
- Oldest ideology
- Originates with the rise of capitalism political economies in the 17th and 18th centuries
o Thomas Hobbes
o John Locke
- Individualism as a central theme
- In some countries, it is associated with a free market; in others, most notably the US
with state intervention
Classical vs. New Liberalism
- Adam Smith and Herbert Spencer
- Emphasis on limiting the role of the state to provide
o Internal and external security
o Enforcement of property rights
o Also, a moral dimension in that a limited state maximizes individual freedom and
rewards those who work the hardest
o Emphasis on negative liberties individual freedom from external constraints
- Thomas Hill Green, Leonard Hobhouse, John Hobson
- Late 1800s, and early 1900s
- Emphasis on social reform
- State intervention could increase liberty by expanding individual opportunity
- Dominated the political landscape for much of the 20th century
- Emphasis on positive liberties freedom to pursue self-development
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