PS101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Prefrontal Cortex, Hallucinogen, Endorphins
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Levels of Awareness
• No Awareness – unconscious
• Subconscious Awareness – things you do without thinking, such as walking up stairs
• Primary Awareness – normal level of awareness
• Self-Awareness – metacognition, thinking about what and how you are thinking
• Altered States of Awareness – changing (un)conscious activity in an artificial fashion
Sleep and Waking
• The sleep-wake cycle
– Infants sleep 2/3 of day, senior sleep ¼ of day
• Why do we sleep?
– Accumulated wastes, depleted reserves
– Bottom line – we don’t know !!!
– *People need a minimum of 6 solid hours of sleep per night. (brain dumps out irrelevant information
from the day and stores memories/emotions). More like 7-8 hours when brain is more busy, such as
when studying for exams.
• Circadian Rhythms
– Day and night people
– Controlled by hypothalamus; pineal gland
• Sleep Deprivation
– Reduces function of the immune system, supresses it
– Time required to fall asleep drops significantly after only one sleepless night
• Circadian rhythms regulated by suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)
• SCN neurons link to pineal gland, which secretes melatonin
• Consciousness includes awareness of
• a. external events only
• b. internal sensations only
• c. self only
• d. external events, internal sensations, and self
• An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
• a. glucose metabolism in the brain
• b. electrical activity of the brain
• True or False
• In general, research into circadian rhythms has found that overall level of alertness and
body temperature are negatively correlated. TRUE
9 What happens when we sleep?
• Sleep – differentiated into stages
• –Differences in muscle tension, eye movements
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