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Chapter 5

PS101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Prefrontal Cortex, Hallucinogen, Endorphins

Course Code
Kris Gerhardt

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Levels of Awareness
No Awareness unconscious
Subconscious Awareness things you do without thinking, such as walking up stairs
Primary Awareness normal level of awareness
Self-Awareness metacognition, thinking about what and how you are thinking
Altered States of Awareness changing (un)conscious activity in an artificial fashion
Sleep and Waking
The sleep-wake cycle
Infants sleep 2/3 of day, senior sleep ¼ of day
Why do we sleep?
Accumulated wastes, depleted reserves
Bottom line we don’t know !!!
*People need a minimum of 6 solid hours of sleep per night. (brain dumps out irrelevant information
from the day and stores memories/emotions). More like 7-8 hours when brain is more busy, such as
when studying for exams.
Circadian Rhythms
Day and night people
Controlled by hypothalamus; pineal gland
Sleep Deprivation
Reduces function of the immune system, supresses it
Time required to fall asleep drops significantly after only one sleepless night
Circadian rhythms regulated by suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)
SCN neurons link to pineal gland, which secretes melatonin
Consciousness includes awareness of
a. external events only
b. internal sensations only
c. self only
d. external events, internal sensations, and self
An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
a. glucose metabolism in the brain
b. electrical activity of the brain
True or False
In general, research into circadian rhythms has found that overall level of alertness and
body temperature are negatively correlated. TRUE
9 What happens when we sleep?
Sleep differentiated into stages
Differences in muscle tension, eye movements
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