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Chapter 14

Summary of Chapter 14 and 15

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS101
Professor
Don Morgenson

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Psychology Midterm Ch 14-15 11/24/2013 8:24:00 AM
Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders
Abnormal Behaviour Pg. 641
Medical Model Proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behaviours as a disease.
Includes terms: Mental Illness, psychological disorder and psychopathology
Prior to 18th century, AB was based on superstition
Diagnosis Involved distinguishing one illness from another
Etiology refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
Prognosis forecast about the probably course of an illness
Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour pg. 642
1. Deviance
Behaviour deviates from society’s norms
Transvestic Fetishism sexual disorder in which a man achieves sexual arousal by dressing
in women’s clothing
2. Maladaptive Behaviour
Everyday adaptive behaviour is impaired
Diagnosis of substance abuse disorders
3. Personal distress
Based on individual’s report of great personal distress
People troubled with depression and anxiety disorders
Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders Pg. 643
1. Psychological disorders are incurable
2. People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous
3. People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from
normal people
Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders Pg. 644
Axis I Clinical Disorders
Axis II Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation
Axis III General Medical Conditions
Axis IV Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
Axis V Global assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale
Diagnoses of disorders are made on Axes I and II
Record most types of disorders on Axis I
Comorbidity the coexistence of two or more disorders
The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders Pg. 645
Epidemiology The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
Prevalence Refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specific
time period
Lifetime Prevalence is the percentage of people who endure a specific disorder at any time in
their lives
1990’s – found psych disorders in one third of pop.
44% of adult pop will struggle with some sort of psych disorder
Most common psychological disorders
1. Substance use disorders
2. Anxiety disorders
3. Mood disorders
Anxiety Disorders pg. 647
Anxiety Disorders class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and
anxiety.
Five principle types of anxiety disorders:
1. Generalized anxiety disorder
2. Phobic Disorder
3. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
4. OCD
5. Post traumatic stress disorder
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
GAD marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat.
Called free-floating anxiety it’s nonspecific
2. Phobic Disorder
Phobic Disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear or an object or situation that
presents no realistic danger
Interferes with everyday behaviour
1-5 percent of Canadians suffer anxiety related to fear
Common phobias include Acrophobia, claustrophobia, brontophobia, hydrophobia
3. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Panic Disorder characterized by recurring attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur
suddenly and unexpectedly
Accompanied by physical symptoms of anxiety
34% of undergraduates suffer from this
Agoraphobia fear of going out to public places
4. OCD
OCD marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusion of unwanted thoughts (obsession) and
urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
2-3% are affected by full fledged OCD
Symptoms: Obsessions and checking, symmetry and order, cleanliness and washing and
hoarding
5. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD can occur by any variety of traumatic events, such as severe car accidents, rape or assault,
natural disaster or witnessing death or another
Does not surface until many months or years after a person’s exposure to severe stress
Tied to memory for the events
Common symptoms re-experiencing traumatic event in form or nightmares or flashbacks,
emotional numbing, alienation, problems in social relationships, an increased sense of
vulnerability and elevated levels of arousal, anxiety, anger and guilt
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders Pg 651
Biological Factors
Concordance rate indicates percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the
same disorder
Anxiety sensitivity may make people vulnerable to anxiety disorders
Some people are highly sensitive to the internal physiological symptoms of anxiety and are
prone to overreact with fear when they experience these symptoms
Recent evidence suggests linkage b/w anxiety disorders and neurotransmitter activity in the
brain
Disturbances in the neural circuits using GABA may play a role in some types of anxiety
disorders
Abnormalities in neural circuits using serotonin have recently been implicated in panic and
OCD
Conditioning and Learning
Many anxiety responses may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through
operant conditioning
Concept of preparedness people are biologically prepared by their evolutionary history to
acquire some fears much more easily than others
Cognitive Factors

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Description
Psychology Midterm Ch 14-15 11/24/2013 8:24:00 AM Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorders Abnormal Behaviour Pg. 641 Medical Model – Proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behaviours as a disease.  Includes terms: Mental Illness, psychological disorder and psychopathology  Prior to 18 century, AB was based on superstition Diagnosis – Involved distinguishing one illness from another Etiology – refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness Prognosis – forecast about the probably course of an illness Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour pg. 642 1. Deviance  Behaviour deviates from society’s norms  Transvestic Fetishism – sexual disorder in which a man achieves sexual arousal by dressing in women’s clothing 2. Maladaptive Behaviour  Everyday adaptive behaviour is impaired  Diagnosis of substance abuse disorders 3. Personal distress Based on individual’s report of great personal distress People troubled with depression and anxiety disorders Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders Pg. 643 1. Psychological disorders are incurable 2. People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous 3. People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders Pg. 644 Axis I – Clinical Disorders Axis II – Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation Axis III – General Medical Conditions Axis IV – Psychosocial and Environmental Problems Axis V – Global assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale  Diagnoses of disorders are made on Axes I and II  Record most types of disorders on Axis I Comorbidity – the coexistence of two or more disorders The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders Pg. 645 Epidemiology – The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population Prevalence – Refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specific time period Lifetime Prevalence is the percentage of people who endure a specific disorder at any time in their lives  1990’s – found psych disorders in one third of pop.  44% of adult pop will struggle with some sort of psych disorder Most common psychological disorders 1. Substance use disorders 2. Anxiety disorders 3. Mood disorders Anxiety Disorders pg. 647 Anxiety Disorders – class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. Five principle types of anxiety disorders: 1. Generalized anxiety disorder 2. Phobic Disorder 3. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia 4. OCD 5. Post traumatic stress disorder 1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD – marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat. Called free-floating anxiety – it’s nonspecific 2. Phobic Disorder Phobic Disorder – marked by a persistent and irrational fear or an object or situation that presents no realistic danger Interferes with everyday behaviour 1-5 percent of Canadians suffer anxiety related to fear Common phobias include – Acrophobia, claustrophobia, brontophobia, hydrophobia 3. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia Panic Disorder – characterized by recurring attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly Accompanied by physical symptoms of anxiety 34% of undergraduates suffer from this Agoraphobia – fear of going out to public places 4. OCD OCD – marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusion of unwanted thoughts (obsession) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) 2-3% are affected by full fledged OCD Symptoms: Obsessions and checking, symmetry and order, cleanliness and washing and hoarding 5. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD can occur by any variety of traumatic events, such as severe car accidents, rape or assault, natural disaster or witnessing death or another Does not surface until many months or years after a person’s exposure to severe stress Tied to memory for the events Common symptoms – re-experiencing traumatic event in form or nightmares or flashbacks, emotional numbing, alienation, problems in social relationships, an increased sense of vulnerability and elevated levels of arousal, anxiety, anger and guilt Etiology of Anxiety Disorders Pg 651 Biological Factors Concordance rate – indicates percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder  Anxiety sensitivity may make people vulnerable to anxiety disorders  Some people are highly sensitive to the internal physiological symptoms of anxiety and are prone to overreact with fear when they experience these symptoms  Recent evidence suggests linkage b/w anxiety disorders and neurotransmitter activity in the brain  Disturbances in the neural circuits using GABA may play a role in some types of anxiety disorders  Abnormalities in neural circuits using serotonin have recently been implicated in panic and OCD Conditioning and Learning Many anxiety responses may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning Concept of preparedness – people are biologically prepared by their evolutionary history to acquire some fears much more easily than others Cognitive Factors Some people are most likely to suffer from problems with anxiety b/cuz of their tendency to: Misinterpret harmless situations as threatening, focus excessive attention on perceived threats and selectively recall information that seems threatening Dissociative Disorders pg. 653  Are a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity Symptoms include: Dissociative amnesia, fugue, and identity disorder Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue Dissoc. Amnesia – a sud
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