PS102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Grey Matter, Twin, White Matter

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26 Jan 2013
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PS102 Chapter 9 Intelligence & Psychological Testing Week 5
Key Concepts in Psychological Testing
-A psychological test is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour
-Measurement instruments
-Used to measure the individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests, and
aspects of personality
Principal Types of Tests
Mental Ability Tests
-Intelligence tests measure general mental ability
-Aptitude tests assess specific types of mental abilities
-Achievement tests gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects
Personality Tests
-Personality tests measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values and
attitudes
-The questions do not have right or wrong answers
Standardization and Norms
-Standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test
-Test norms provide information about where a score of a psychological test ranks in relation to other
scores on that test
-A percentile score indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score on has obtained
Reliability
-Reliability refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or other kinds of measurement techniques)
-A correlation coefficient is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
Validity
-Validity refers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
Content Validity
-Content validity refers to the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s
supposed to cover
Criterion-Related Validity
-Criterion-related validity is estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an
independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test
Construct Validity
-Construct validity the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical
construct
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PS102 Chapter 9 Intelligence & Psychological Testing Week 5
The Evolution of Intelligence Testing
Galton’s Studies of Hereditary Genius
-Success runs in families because great intelligence is passed from generation to generation through
genetic inheritance
Binet’s Breakthrough
-The goal was to single out youngsters in need of special training
-A child’s mental age indicated that he or she displayed the mental ability typical of a child of that
chronological (actual) age
-Thus, a child with a mental age of six performed like the average six-year-old on the test
Terman and the Stanford-Binet
-Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale
-An intelligence quotient is a child’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
IQ = Mental age___ x 100
Chronological age
-The ratio of mental age to chronological age made it possible to compare children of different ages
Wechsler’s Innovation
-Wechsler set out to improve on the measurement of intelligence in adults
-He made his scales less dependent on subject’s verbal ability – he included many items that required
non-verbal reasoning
-To highlight the distinction between verbal and nonverbal ability, he formalized the computation of
separate scores for verbal IQ, performance (nonverbal) IQ, and full-scale (total) IQ
The Debate about the Structure of Intelligence
-In factor analysis, correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of
variables
-Spearman used factor analysis to examine the correlations among tests of many specific mental abilities
Exploring Biological Correlates of Intelligence
-Using a somewhat different approach to factor analysis, Thurstone concluded that intelligence involves
multiple abilities
-The debate about the structure of intelligence continued for many decades and in some respects the
issue lingers in the background even today
-Fluid intelligence involves reasoning ability, memory capacity, and speed of information processing
-Crystallized intelligence involves ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving
-G is general mental ability
-Contemporary IQ tests generally are based on a hierarchical model of intelligence, which subdivides g
into 10-15 specific abilities
-Researchers an theorists tend to be obsessed with Spearman’s g. But clinicians and educators facing
difficult diagnostic decisions, and the companies that develop tests for them are more interested in the
measurement of specific abilities in the tradition of Thurstone
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Document Summary

A psychological test is a standardized measure of a sample of a person"s behaviour. Used to measure the individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests, and aspects of personality. Aptitude tests assess specific types of mental abilities. Achievement tests gauge a person"s mastery and knowledge of various subjects. Personality tests measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values and attitudes. The questions do not have right or wrong answers. Standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test. Test norms provide information about where a score of a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test. A percentile score indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score on has obtained. Reliability refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or other kinds of measurement techniques) A correlation coefficient is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.

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