PS102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Thematic Apperception Test, Limbic System, Projective Test

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PS102 Chapter 10 Motivation & Emotion Weeks 6/7
Motivational Theories and Concepts
-Motivation involves goal-directed behaviour
Drive Theories
-Drive theories apply the concept of homeostasis a state of physiological equilibrium or stability to
behaviour
-A drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should
reduce this tension
-Drive theories have been very influential, and the drive concept continues to be widely used in modern
psychology
-Drive theories cannot explain all of motivation
Incentive Theories
-An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour
-Ex. Ice cream if you get an A on your exam
-Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions
-Incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions
-Expectancy-value models of motivation are incentive theories that take this reality into account
-A particular course of action will depend on two factors: (1) expectancy about one’s chances of
attaining the incentive, and (2) the value of the desired incentive
Evolutionary Theories
-Human motives and those of other species are the product of evolution, just an anatomical
characteristics are
-Evolutionary analyses of motivation are based on the premise that motives can best be understood in
terms of the adaptive problems they solved for our hunter-gatherer ancestors
The Range and Diversity of Human Motives
-Motivational theorists of all persuasions agree on one point: Humans display an enormous diversity of
motives
-Given the range and diversity of human motives, we can examine only a handful in depth
The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
-There is an association between stomach contractions and the experience of hunger
-Stomach contractions cause hunger
Brain Regulation
-The experience of hunger is controlled in the brain in the hypothalamus
-The lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) were the
brain’s on-off switches for the control of hunger
-Today, scientists believe that two other areas of the hypothalamus the arcuate nucleus and the
paraventrical nucleus play a larger role in the modulation of hunger
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PS102 Chapter 10 Motivation & Emotion Weeks 6/7
Glucose and Digestive Regulation
-Glucose is a simple sugar that is an important source of energy
-Actions that decrease blood glucose level can increase hunger
-After you have consumed food, cells in the stomach can send signals to the brain stem that inhibit
further eating
Hormonal Regulation
-A variety of hormones circulating in the bloodstream also appear to contribute to the regulation of
hunger
-Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas it must be present for cells to extract glucose from the
blood
-The secretion of insulin is what causes diabetes
-After going without food for a while, the stomach secretes ghrelin which causes stomach contractions
and promotes hunger
-Leptin is produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the bloodstream when leptin
levels are high, the propensity to feel hungry diminishes
Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
Food Availability and Related Cues
-Palatability The better food tastes, the more of it people consume
-Quantity available A powerful determinant of the amount eaten is the amount available
-Variety Humans and animals increase their consumption when a greater variety of foods is available
-Presence of others On average, individuals eat 44% more when they eat with other people as
opposed to eating alone
Learning Preferences and Habits
-People from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption
-A preference for sweet tastes is present at birth
-An unlearned preference for salt emerges around four months
-Taste preferences are partly a function of learned associations formed through classical conditioning
Stress and Eating
-Stress leads to increased eating in a substantial portion of people
-Some people eat while stressed because they expect the enjoyable treats to make them feel better
Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity
-Obesity is the condition of being overweight
-Definitions of overweight and obese are based on the body mass index (BMI), which is an individual’s
weight (in kg) divided by height (in metres) squared
-A BMI over 30 is considered obese, while BMIs between 25-29.9 are considered overweight
-Overweight people are more vulnerable than others to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension,
respiratory problems, gallbladder disease, etc.
Genetic Predisposition
-Some people can eat constantly without gaining weight while others get chubby or eating less. These
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PS102 Chapter 10 Motivation & Emotion Weeks 6/7
differences have a genetic basis
Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise
-The bottom line for overweight people is that their energy intake from food consumption chronically
exceeds their energy expenditure from physical activities and resting metabolic processes in other
words, they eat too much in relation to their level of exercise
-Inadequate exercise is a growing concern à
Sensitivity to External Cues
-Schachter advanced the “externality hypothesis” that obese people are extra sensitive to external cues
that affect hunger and are relatively insensitive to physiological signals, whereas the eating of normal-
weight individuals is regulated by internal signals
-External cues are how tasty food appeared, how obvious the availability was, etc.
-Many studies find views that are inconsistent with this theory
The Concept of Set Point
-Set-point theory proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable
-Setting-point theory proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of
factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieves an equilibrium
Dietary Restraint
-Chronic dieters are restrained eaters people who consciously work overtime to control their eating
impulses and who feel guilty when they fail
-The most common source of disinhibition is simply the perception that they have cheated on their diet
“I’ve already blown it”, they think to themselves after perhaps one high calorie appetizer
-Restrained eaters tend to prepare for diets by overeating
-Dietary restraint also contributes to the tendency to overeat just before beginning a diet
-Anticipation of food deprivation seems to act as another disinhibitor
Eating Disorders
-Anorexia, bulimia
Sexual Motivation and Behaviour
The Human Sexual Response
-The sexual response cycle is divided into four stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Excitement Phase
-The level of physical arousal usual rise rapidly
-Muscle tension, respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure increase quickly
-Vasocongestion engorgement of blood vessels Ex. Erection , vaginal lubrication
Plateau Phase
-Produces a tightening of the vaginal entrance
-Man secrete a bit of fluid at the tip of the penis
-Erections vary, vaginal wetness varies
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