PS102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Semantic Network, Sketchpad, Implicit Memory

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Psychology
Course
PS102
Page:
of 7
Chapter 7 Human Memory
Encoding: involves forming a memory code
Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time
Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores
Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
The Role of Attention
-you generally need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it
Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
-attention is like a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass
through into conscious awareness
-but where is the filter located?
-are stimuli screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the brain has processed it
-the cocktail party effect suggests it is after the brain has processed it
-people can overhear their own name, even when ‘not listening’ to the conversation
-studies have found evidence for both as well as for intermediate selection
-the filter may be flexible rather than fixed
-it is clear that people have difficulty if they attempt to focus their attention on two or more inputs
simultaneously
-large reduction in memory performance is seen
-the human brain can only effectively handle one attention-consuming task at a time
-when people multitask, they are really switching their attention back and forth amongst tasks, rather
than processing them simultaneously
Levels of Processing
-differences in how people attend to info are the main factors influencing how much they remember
Levels-of-Processing Theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory
codes
-semantic encoding is the deepest, and emphasizes the meaning of verbal input
Level of Processing
Type of encoding
Shallow processing
Structural encoding: emphasizes the physical
structure of the stimulus
Intermediate processing
Phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word
sounds like
Deep processing
Semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of
verbal input
Enriching Encoding
Elaboration
Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
-semantic encoding can often be enhanced through elaboration
-often consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea
Visual Imagery
-imagery can also be used to enrich encoding
-it is easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts
Dual-Coding Theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either
can lead to recall
Self-Referent Encoding
-making material personally meaningful can also enrich encoding
Self-Referent Encoding: involves deciding how or whether info is personally relevant
-enhances recall by promoting additional elaboration and better organization of information
Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
Sensory Memory
Sensory Memory: preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a
second
-allows the sensation to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over
-this gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli
Short-Term Memory
Short-Term Memory: a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20
seconds
Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information
-this is how you can maintain info in your short-term memory
Durability of Storage
-w/o rehearsal, info in short-term memory is lost in less than 20 seconds
-loss of info from short-term memory is due to time-related decay of memory traces, as well as from
interference from competing material
Capacity of Storage
-short-term memory is limited in the number of items it can hold
-it can only hold 5-9 (7+/-2)
Chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
-you can increase the capacity of your STM by combining stimuli into chunks
Short-Term Memory as ‘Working Memory’
-studies showed that STM is not limited to phonemic encoding as originally thought and that decay isn’t
the only process responsible for the loss of info from STM
-so the ‘working memory’ was proposed
-consists of 4 components:
-the phonological loop: represented all of STM in the earlier models
-visuospatial sketchpad: temporarily holds visual images
-central executive system: controls attention, switching focus and dividing attention
-episodic buffer: a limited-capacity store that allows the components of working memory to
integrate info and serves as a buffer between short-term and long-term memory
Long-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory: an unlimited capacity store that can hold info over lengthy periods of time
-storage may be permanent, and forgetting may only occur b/c people can’t retrieve the info
Flashbulb Memories: unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events
-they are usually not accurate
-so there is no evidence that memories are stored permanently
Are Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Separate?
-some people view STM as a tiny constantly changing portion of LTM that happens to be in a
heightened state of activation
-but right now, the separation of STM and LTM remains dominant
How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory?
-our mental representations probably take a variety of forms, depending on the nature of the material
that needs to be inputted in memory
Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies
-people spontaneously organize info into categories for storage in memory
Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups
Conceptual Hierarchy: a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items
-organizing info into a conceptual hierarchy can improve recall dramatically
Schemas
Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous
experience w/ the object or event
-suggests that people are more likely to remember things that are consistent w/ their schemas than
things that aren’t
-but also, people sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schemas
-relational schemas affect the way you process info about others and yourself, and influence your
expectations and beliefs about yourself
Semantic Networks
Semantic Network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link
related concepts
-not all info fits neatly into conceptual hierarchies or schemas
-so it is organized into this less systematic framework
-words that are closely linked to each other should be easier to recall than words that have longer links
Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models
-take their inspiration from how neural networks appear to handle info
-instead of how computers process
-the human brain depends extensively on parallel distributed processing
-simultaneous processing of the same info that is spread across networks of neurons

Document Summary

Are stimuli screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the brain has processed it. Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time. You generally need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it. Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. Attention is like a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness. The cocktail party effect suggests it is after the brain has processed it. Studies have found evidence for both as well as for intermediate selection. It is clear that people have difficulty if they attempt to focus their attention on two or more inputs simultaneously. When people multitask, they are really switching their attention back and forth amongst tasks, rather than processing them simultaneously. Differences in how people attend to info are the main factors influencing how much they remember.