Chapter 10 _ Motivation and Emotion.docx

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Psychology
Course
PS102
Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion
Motivational Theories and Concepts
Motivation: involves goal-directed behaviour
-motives are the needs, wants, interests and desires that propel people in certain directions
Drive Theories
Homeostasis: a state of physiological equilibrium or stability
-organisms seek to maintain this
Drive: an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce
this tension
-these unpleasant states of tension are viewed as disruptions of equilibrium
-when organisms experience a drive, they’re motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive
reduction
-but drive theories can’t explain all motivation
-homeostasis appears irrelevant to some human motives, such as a ‘thirst for knowledge’
-also, motivation may exist without drive arousal
-ex. eat when you aren’t hungry
Incentive Theories
-incentive theories propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states
Incentive: an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour
-some of these incentives may reduce drives, but others may not
-drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions
-the source of motivation lies within the organism
-incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions
-the source of motivation lies outside the organism
-so incentive theories don’t operate according to homeostasis
-so they emphasize environmental factors, and downplay biological bases of human
motivation
-people can’t always obtain the goals they desire
-expectancy-value models of motivation are incentive theories that take this reality into account
-one’s motivation to pursue a course of action will depend on two factors:
1. Expectancy about one’s chance of attaining the incentive
2. The value of the desired incentive
Evolutionary Theories
-human motives are the products of evolution
-natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive success
-so motives can be explained in terms of their adaptive value
-motives can be best understood in terms of the adaptive problems they have solved for our
hunter-gatherer ancestors
-for example, the need for dominance is thought to be greater in men than women b/c it could facilitate
males’ reproductive success in a few ways:
-females may prefer mating with dominant males
-dominant males may poach females from subordinate males
-dominant males may intimidate male rivals in competition for sexual access
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-dominant males may acquire more material resources, which may increase mating
opportunities
The Range and Diversity of Human Motives
-humans display an enormous diversity of motives
-most theories distinguish between biological motives that originate in bodily needs (hunger), and social
motives that originate in social experiences (achievement)
-people all share the same biological motives, but social motives vary, depending on their experiences
The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
-there is an association between stomach contractions (growling) and the experience of hunger
-but it is not causation, only correlation
-people continue to experience hunger even after their stomachs have been removed medically
-if hunger can occur w/o a stomach, then stomach contractions can’t be the cause of it
-so theories of hunger now focus on the
- role of the brain,
- blood sugar level, and
- hormones
Brain Regulation
-the lateral and ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus are elements in the neural circuitry that
regulates hunger but are not the key elements and are not simple on-off centres
- Lateral hypothalamus- seemed as if the hunger was destroyed.
- Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)- animal ate excessively and gained weight rapidly.
-another area of the hypothalamus, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), plays a large role in the
modulation of hunger
-theories of hunger now focus on the neural circuits that pass through areas of the hypothalamus
-the circuits depend on many neurotransmitters rather than anatomical centres
-mainly neuropeptide Y, serotonin, GABA, ghrelin, orexins and the endogenous
cannabinoids resemble marijuana
-elevated ghrelin is associated with increased food intake
Glucose and Digestive Regulation
Glucose: a simple sugar that is an important energy source for the body
-increased glucose make you feel full, decreased glucose makes you feel hungry
-the glucostatic theory proposes that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by
glucostats
Glucostats: neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid
-but it was found that glucose levels don’t change that much or that quickly
-the digestive system includes other mechanisms that influence hunger
-cells in the stomach can send signals to the brain that inhibit further eating
-the vagus nerve carries info about the stretching of the stomach walls, which indicates
the stomach is full
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-other nerves carry satiety messages that depend on how rich in nutrients the contents
of the stomach are
Hormonal Regulation
-insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas
-it must be present for cells to extract glucose from the blood
-the secretion of insulin is associated with increased hunger
- appears to be sensitive to fluctuation in the body fat
- Enticing food can stimulate secretion of insulin
-leptin is produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the bloodstream
-when leptin levels are high, you don’t feel hungry
-leptin apparently activates receptors in the brain that inhibit the release of neuropeptide Y,
which leads to activity in the PVS, which inhibits eating
- it provided hypothalamus with the info about body fat
Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
-three key environmental factors are:
-the availability of food, learned preferences and habits, and stress
Food Availability and Related Cues
-some theories emphasize the incentive value of food
-they argue that humans are often motivated to eat by the anticipated pleasure of eating
-not just by the need to compensate for energy deficits
-this means that the availability and palatability of food are the key factors regulating hunger
Sensory Specific Satiety: as you eat a specific food, its incentive value declines
-if only a few foods are available, the appeal of all of them can decline quickly
-explains why people eat a lot at buffets, where many foods are available
-hunger can also be triggered by exposure to environmental cues that have been associated with eating
-eating is also a social action
-the presence of others generally inhibits our eating
-but, under certain specific conditions, eating may increase
Learned Preferences and Habits
-people from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption
-humans do have some innate taste preferences
-a preference for sweet tastes is present at birth
-humans’ preference for high-fat foods appears to be at least partly genetic
-also, an unlearned preference for salt emerges at around 4 months old
-but taste preferences are partly a function of learned associations formed through classical
conditioning
-eating habits are also shaped by observational learning
-young children are more likely to try an unfamiliar food if an adult tries it first
-repeated exposures to a new food often lead to increased liking
Stress and Eating
-stress leads to increased eating in many people
-some think it is stress-induced physiological arousal rather than stress itself that stimulates eating
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Document Summary

Motives are the needs, wants, interests and desires that propel people in certain directions. Homeostasis: a state of physiological equilibrium or stability. Drive: an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension. These unpleasant states of tension are viewed as disruptions of equilibrium. When organisms experience a drive, they"re motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction. Homeostasis appears irrelevant to some human motives, such as a thirst for knowledge". Incentive theories propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states. Incentive: an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour. Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions. Incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions. The source of motivation lies outside the organism. So incentive theories don"t operate according to homeostasis. Some of these incentives may reduce drives, but others may not. The source of motivation lies within the organism.

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