PS102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Prefrontal Cortex, Leptin, John Bowlby

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Psychology
Course
PS102
Chapter 11 Human Development across the Life Span
Progress before Birth: Prenatal Development
Development: the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception
to death
Zygote: a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg
Prenatal Period: extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy
The Course of Prenatal Development
-divided into 3 phases: germinal stage, embryonic stage, fetal stage
Germinal Stage
-the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception
-begins when a zygote is created through fertilization
-within 36 hours, rapid cell division begins
-slowly migrates along the fallopian tube to the uterus
-on the 7th day, it implants itself in the uterine wall
-many zygotes are rejected at this point
-1/5 pregnancies end with the women never knowing
-during implantation, the placenta begins to form
Placenta: a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s
bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
-takes place across a membrane that blocks the passage of blood cells
-fetal and maternal bloodstreams need to stay separate
Embryonic Stage
-the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month
-most of the vital organs and body systems begin to form
-the heart, spine and brain emerge gradually
-arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes, eyes and ears are already discernible
-very vulnerable stage, b/c all the basic physiological structures are being formed
-most miscarriages and structural birth defects are due to problems in this stage
Fetal Stage
-the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months till birth
-the first two months bring rapid growth, as muscles and bones begin to form
-fetus becomes capable of physical movements as skeletal structures harden
-sex organs start to develop during the third month
-during the final 3 months, brain cells multiply rapidly
-body fat is added
-respiratory and digestive systems mature
Age of Viability: the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
-between 22 and 26 weeks
-85% survival rate at 26-28 weeks
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Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
-events in the external environment can affect the fetus through the mother
-a mother’s eating habits, drug use, and physical health can affect development
Maternal Nutrition
-too much or too little weight gain during gestation is associated w/ many birth complications
-based on pre-pregnancy body mass index
-severe maternal malnutrition increases the risk of birth complications and neurological defects
-has been linked to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders
-low birth weight is associated w/ an increased risk of heart disease and diabetes in adulthood
Maternal Drug Use
-most drugs consumed by the mother can pass through the placenta to the baby
-all recreational drugs can be harmful, with sedatives, narcotics, and cocaine being super dangerous
-babies of heroin users are born addicted
-they have increased risk of prematurity, birth defects, respiratory difficulties
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol
use during pregnancy
-problems include: microcephaly, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, delayed mental and
motor development
-most common known cause of mental retardation
-even normal drinking during pregnancy can have substantial negative effects
-smoking produces changes in the mother that reduce the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus
-increases risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and prematurity
-increases risk for sudden infant death syndrome, slower cognitive development, attention
deficits, hyperactivity and conduct problems
Maternal Illness
-fetal immune systems mature relatively late in the prenatal period
-many maternal illnesses can go through the placenta and interfere with development
-diseases such as rubella, syphilis, cholera, smallpox, mumps, and even severe cases of the flu can be
hazardous
-pregnant women can also transmit genital herpes and AIDS to their babies
-contracted during birth
-herpes can cause microcephaly, paralysis, deafness, blindness brain damage, and death in newborns
-AIDS can be contracted through the placenta, during birth, or breast feeding
-20-30% of women who have AIDS pass it on to their babies
The Wondrous Years of Childhood
Exploring the World: Motor Development
Motor Development: the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities
-basic motor skills: grasping, reaching, manipulating objects, sitting up, crawling, walking,
running
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Basic Principles
Cephalocaudal Trend: the head-to-foot direction of motor development
-children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part
Proximodistal Trend: the centre-outward direction of motor development
-gain control over torso before extremities
-early motor development depends in part on physical growth
-infants grow to triple their birthrate in the first year, height increases by about 45%
Maturation: development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint
-early progress in motor skills has been attributed to this
-it’s a product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age (NOT learning)
-but, according to new research, maturation has been oversimplified and overestimated in the past
-may also be due to learning
Understanding Developmental Norms
Developmental Norms: indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviours and
abilities
Cultural Variations and Their Significance
-rapid motor development has been observed in some cultures that provide special practice in basic
motor skills
-slow motor development has been found in some cultures that discourage motor exploration
-this shows that environmental factors can accelerate or slow down early motor development
-but mainly, the similarities across cultures outweigh differences
-so this shows that early motor development depends to a considerable extent on maturation
-but later on, maturation becomes less influential and experience becomes more critical
Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
Temperament: refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
-infants show consistent differences in emotional tone, tempo of activity, and sensitivity to
environmental stimuli very early in life
Longitudinal Design: investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time
-PROS: more sensitive to developmental influences and changes
-CONS: people may drop out
Cross-sectional Design: investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in
time
-PROS: can be completed more quickly, easily and cheaply
-long-term stability of children’s temperaments (by Thomas and Chess)used a longitudinal design
-found that temperament is well-established by two to 3 months of age
-found three main groups: easy children, slow-to-warm-up children, and difficult children
-the rest were mixtures
-temperament is heavily influenced by heredity and tends to be fairly stable over time
-but it is not unchangeable
Early Emotional Development: Attachment
Attachment: the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
Separation Anxiety: emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with
whom they have formed an attachment
-typically peaks at around 14 to 18 months, and then begins to decline
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Document Summary

Chapter 11 human development across the life span. Slowly migrates along the fallopian tube to the uterus. On the 7th day, it implants itself in the uterine wall. Development: the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death. Zygote: a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg. Prenatal period: extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy. Divided into 3 phases: germinal stage, embryonic stage, fetal stage. The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception. Begins when a zygote is created through fertilization. Placenta: a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother"s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother. The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month. Most of the vital organs and body systems begin to form.

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