Textbook Notes (383,832)
CA (169,677)
WLU (8,395)
PS (2,202)
PS102 (323)
Eileen Wood (152)
Chapter

psych102EileenWood.docx

44 Pages
63 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Eileen Wood

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 44 pages of the document.
Chapter 6-Learning
Learning: is a any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience
Conditioning: involves learning connections between events that occur in an organism’s environment
Classical Conditioning
Is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another
stimulus
Sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning
The unconditioned stimulus: is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
Types of UCS (& CS)
Forward short-delay
Forward trace
Simultaneous
Backward
The unconditioned response: is an unlearned reaction to an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs
without previous conditioning
The conditioned stimulus: is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a
conditioned response
The conditioned response: is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
Evaluative conditioning: refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive
or negative stimuli
Robert Ader and Nicholas cohen have show that classical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppression: a
decrease in the production of antibodies
Basic processes to classical conditioning
Acquisition: the initial stage of learning something
Extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
Process in which CS is presented in absence of UCS
Causes CR to weaken and eventually disappear
Gradual
Systematic desensitization
Non Gradual
Flooding, real events
Implosion, imagine events
Spontaneous recover: is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of no exposure to the
conditioned stimulus
1. Renewal effect: if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response
will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place
Spontaneous Recovery
After a rest period, and without any new learning trials, the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR
Usually weaker than initial CR, extinguishes more rapidly
Stimulus generalization: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same
way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
Stimulus discrimination: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the
same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
Higher-order conditioning: in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
Chain of events which has 2 CS stimuli
Expands influence of classical conditioning on behaviour
Ex. If you made the dog that already has a behaviour attached to something, continue the attachment with something else;
play the tuning fork at the same time as you show the black square, later the dog will have just an attachment with the black
square.
Operant Conditioning
Is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
Another name for it is instrumental learning (introduced by Edward Thorndike in 1913)
Law of effect: if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and
the response is strengthened
Reinforcement: occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response
An operant chamber (or skinner box): is a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded
while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled
Emit: means to send forth
Reinforcement contingencies: are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of
reinforcers
The cumulative recorder: creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of time
Basic processes in operant conditioning
Acquisition and shaping: which consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
Extinction: Resistance to extinction: occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer
has been terminated
Stimulus control: Discriminative stimuli: are cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences
(reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response
Differences between classical and operant conditioning
Classical
Behaviour changes due to association of two stimuli (CS-UCS) presented prior to the response (CR)
Operant
Behaviour changes as a result of consequences that follow it
Learning through consequences
Thorndike’s law of effect
Response followed by a “satisfying” consequence becomes more likely to occur
Response followed by an “unsatisfying” consequence becomes less likely to occur
Skinnerian, instrumental
Assumes that behaviours are voluntary, under our control

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter6LearningLearning is a any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience Conditioning involves learning connections between events that occur in an organisms environmentClassical ConditioningIs a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulusSometimes called Pavlovian conditioningThe unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioningTypes of UCSCSForward shortdelayForward traceSimultaneousBackwardThe unconditioned response is an unlearned reaction to an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioningThe conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned responseThe conditioned response is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioningEvaluative conditioning refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuliRobert Ader and Nicholas cohen have show that classical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppression a decrease in the production of antibodiesBasic processes to classical conditioningAcquisition the initial stage of learning somethingExtinction the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendencyProcess in which CS is presented in absence of UCSCauses CR to weaken and eventually disappearGradualSystematic desensitizationNon GradualFlooding real eventsImplosion imagine eventsSpontaneous recover is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of no exposure to the conditioned stimulusRenewal effect if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired the extinguished response 1will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took placeSpontaneous RecoveryAfter a rest period and without any new learning trials the reappearance of a previously extinguished CRUsually weaker than initial CR extinguishes more rapidlyStimulus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulusStimulus discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus Higherorder conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulusChain of events which has 2 CS stimuliExpands influence of classical conditioning on behaviour Ex If you made the dog that already has a behaviour attached to something continue the attachment with something else play the tuning fork at the same time as you show the black square later the dog will have just an attachment with the black squareOperant ConditioningIs a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequencesAnother name for it is instrumental learning introduced by Edward Thorndike in 1913Law of effect if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that responseAn operant chamber or skinner box is a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlledEmit means to send forthReinforcement contingencies are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcersThe cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of timeBasic processes in operant conditioningAcquisition and shaping which consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired responseExtinction Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminatedStimulus control Discriminative stimuli are cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences reinforcement or nonreinforcement of a responseDifferences between classical and operant conditioningClassicalBehaviour changes due to association of two stimuli CSUCS presented prior to the response CROperantBehaviour changes as a result of consequences that follow itLearning through consequencesThorndikes law of effectResponse followed by a satisfying consequence becomes more likely to occurResponse followed by an unsatisfying consequence becomes less likely to occurSkinnerian instrumentalAssumes that behaviours are voluntary under our control
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit