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PS268 (134)
Bruce Mc Kay (133)
Chapter 10

Drugs and Behaviour - Chapter 10

6 Pages
204 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS268
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay

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Description
Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 10  Tobacco history o Aboriginal people were first to use tobacco o People in san Salvador presented Columbus with tobacco leave as a birthday present o Either took (used snuff) or drank (smoked) tobacco o Where the word tobacco comes from  Two-pronged tube used by aboriginals to take snuff  Developed from province of tobaccos in Mexico o When member from Columbus’ party returned back to Europe, people convinced he was possessed because of smoke coming from mouth and nose o Early medical uses  Introduced as herb that treated almost everything  Persisten headaches  Cold or catarrh  Abcesses and sore on head  14 books mentioned medicinal value of tobacco  Jean Nicot used it to “cure” migraines  1565 – plant called nicotiane  Called active ingredient nicotine  Tobacco should be avoided by (among others) women with child and husbands who desired children o The spread of tobacco use  Two major species  Nicotiana tobacum o Large leaf species grown in more than a hundred countries  Nicotiana rustica o Small leaf species existed in West Indies and eastern NA  Spanish had monopoly on tobacco sales to Europe  1612, tobacum species grew well in Virginia  1619 – cultivation of tobacco prohibited in England  One of the major exports of American colonies to England  1800 – tobacco commercially grown in Canada  Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited  Rothmans, benson and Hedges incorporated  JTI-Macdonald corporation  Most of the tobacco grown in Ontario grown near Delhi and Tillsonburg o Snuff th  18 century  Smoking gradually diminished  Snuff replaced pipe in England o Chewing tobacco  Chewing suitable activity for country on the go  Freed up hands and can spit anywhere  1860 – only 7/348 companies made smoking tobacco  Start of 20 century was approximate high point for chewing tobacco  Sales slowly declined throughout early part of that country  Chewing tobacco remained big part of MLB over years o Cigars  Cigarette smoking becoming popular and cigar manufacturers did best to keep it under control  Suggested cigarettes drugged with opium and paper bleached with arsenic and was harmful  Cigar sales reached highest level in 1920 1 Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 10  Lower cost and changing styles led to emergence of cigarettes as leading form of tobacco use o Cigarettes  First British cigarette factor started in 1856  Late 1850s – Philip Morris produced handmade cigarettes  1881 – first cigarette-making machine  1885 – more than 1 billion cigarettes sold yearly  Camels (1913) – contained hint of Turkish tobacco  Filter cigarettes (1954) took over market  Tobacco under attack o King James of England published strong anti-tobacco pamphlet stating that tobacco was harmful to brain, dangerous to lungs  Still supported tobacco growing o NYC (1908) illegal for women to smoke in public o Roaring 20s, women expelled from school/dismissed from jobs for smoking o 1930s-1940s, attack on tobacco, major health problem  Possible link between smoking and cancer o Two ways to respond to the threats  Formation of the “supposed council for tobacco research” to research health claims  Mass marketing of filter cigarettes and cigarettes with lowered tar and nicotine content o 1964 – advisory committee on smoking and health  Cigarette smoking cause for increased lung cancer in men o 1965 – cigarette packages required to include surgeon general’s warning o 1971 – television and radio ads banned o 1989 – smoking on busses and airplanes banned o Smoking ban in public buildings, bars, offices, restaurants…etc o 6300 people die from second hand smoke each year  Tobacco history in Canada o 1908 – tobacco restraint act passed in Canada  Banned sales of cigarette to people under 16 o Link between smoking and lung cancer established in medical literature in 1950s  Tobacco industry tried to hide negative health effects o 1974 – Canadian council on smoking and health formed  Canadian Cancer society, Canadian heart foundation, Heart and Stroke foundation, Canadian lung association o 1988-1989 – federal laws enacted to prohibit tobacco advertising and smoke-free workplace  Also required manufacturers list out additives and amounts  Required them to put health warning on packages o 1993 – raised legal age to 18 o 1994 – bigger warning messages required on cigarette packs o 1995 – supreme court of Canada squashed ban on tobacco advertising o 1997 – tobacco act passed  Restricted promotions, packaging and products, imposed point-of-sale restrictions o The quest for “safer” cigarettes  If nicotine content of cigarettes is varied, smoking behaviour changes  Tar  Sticky brown stuff (seen on filter after cigarette is smoked)  Introduced safer cigarettes (1950s)  Filter cigarettes  1980s – low tar and nicotine cigarettes dominated market  Safer doesn’t necessarily mean “safe” 2 Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 10  Liggett developed cigarette that significantly reduced number of tumours in mice compared with company’s standard brand  Noncigarette cigarette  Appearance of plastic cigarette, product contained catalytic crystals coated with tobacco extract but no obvious tobacco  Produced no smoke  Inhaling allowed user to absorb nicotine  Unable to find a way to market this product o Current cigarette use  Compared with national estimate of 12.7%, prevalence of smoking above average among those attending university in Quebec and Atlantic provinces, lowest among BC and prairies  Almost perfectly inverse linear relationship between number of years of education and percentage of group that smokes cigarettes  8% of 15-19 still become regular smokers  3% of grade 6-9 smoked  13% of grade 10-12 regular smokers  Aboriginals  82% 15-19 smoke  70% of Inuit 18-45 smoke o Smokeless tobacco  1970s – tried to look for alternatives that reduce risk  Sales of smokeless tobacco – different chewing tobacco – began to increase  Most common type of oral smokeless tobacco are loose leaf sold in pouches and moist snuff  Moist snuff – finely chopped tobacco, held in mouth rather than snuffed into nose  Advantages  Unlikely to cause lung cancer  Less expensive than cigarettes  More socially acceptable than smoking in some scenarios  Dangers/hazards  Contain potent carcinogens, high levels of nitrosamines o Nitrosamines – carcinogenic chemical, found in tobacc  Tissue change in mouth leukoplakia o Whitening and thickening of mucous tissue in mouth, considered to be precancerous  Irritation of gums cause them to inflame and recede, exposing teeth to disease  Oral use of smokeless tobacco significant health risk  Can cause cancerous/noncancerous oral conditions  Nicotine addiction/dependence o Are cigars back?  Mid 1990s – reappeared back on cul
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