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Chapter 11

PS270 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Implicit-Association Test, The Authoritarian Personality, Anthony Greenwald


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS270
Professor
Christian Jordan
Chapter
11

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SOCIAL PSYCH
TEXTBOOK CHAPTER 11 SOURCES OF PREJUDICE
WHAT IS PREJUDICE?
PREJUDICE = a negative prejudgement of a group and its
individual members
Its an attitude
STEREOTYPES = beliefs about the personal attributions of a
group of people
Can be overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new
information
Examples:
The British are reserved
Italians are outgoing
Professors are absent-minded
The problem with stereotypes arises when they are
overgeneralized or just plain wrong:
To presume that most Aboriginal Canadians need
treatment for alcoholism is to overgeneralize,
because its not true
DISCRIMINATION = unjustifiable negative behaviour toward a
group or its members
RACISM =
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1. An individual’s prejudicial attitudes and
discriminatory behaviour toward people of a given race
2. Institutional practices (even if not motivated by
prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race
SEXISM =
1. An individual’s prejudicial attitudes and
discriminatory behaviour toward people of a given sex
2. Institutional practices (even if not motivated by
prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex
SUBTLE FORMS OF PREJUDICE:
When white students indicate racial attitudes and men their
sympathy for women’s rights while hooked up to a supposed
lie detector, they admit to prejudice but DON’T admit it when
they are NOT hooked up to one
Prejudiced attitudes seem to surface when they can hide
behind the screen of some other motive:
In France, Britain, Germany, Australia, and the
Netherlands, subtle prejudice exaggerating ethnic
differences, feeling less admiration and affection for
immigrant minorities, rejecting them for supposedly non-
racial reasons
Some researchers call it “modern racism or
“cultural racism
Modern prejudice often appears subtly, in our
preferences for what is familiar, similar, and
comfortable
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AUTOMATIC PREJUDICE:
We can have differing explicit (conscious) and implicit
(automatic) attitudes toward the same target
As shown by 500 studies using the IMPLICIT
ASSOCIATION TEST (Carpenter, 2000)
The Implicit Association Test assesses “implicit cognition” –
what you know without knowing that you know
It does so by measuring people’s speeds of associations
Much as we more quickly associate a hammer with
a nail than with a pail, so the test can measure how
speedily we associate “white” with “good” VS “black
with “good”
Thus, we may retain from childhood a habitual, automatic fear
or dislike of people for whom we now express respect and
admiration
Although explicit attitudes may change dramatically with
education, implicit attitudes may linger, changing only as we
form new habits through practice (Kawakami et al, 2000)
In clever experiments by Anthony Greenwald and his
colleagues, 9 out of 10 white people took longer to identify
pleasant words (such as peace and paradise) as “good” when
associated with Black rather than white Faces
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