PS366 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Episodic Memory, Memory Span, Connectionism

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2 Feb 2013
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Psycholinguistics Chapter 3
1
information processing system
o study of memory has long history in study of psychology
o there is working memory and long term memory
William James calls them primary and secondary memory
o two aspects of long-term memory
semantic and episodic
working memory
o temporary storage of information that is being processed in any range of cognitive tasks
o important that we have working memory with temporary storage for simple tasks
having a conversation
remember phone numbers
o measured in several ways
most simple is memory span test
testing the number of items that can be recalled in the right order
typically 7 +/-2 items, outliers are rare
o Baddeley-Hitch Model
visuospatial sketchpad <-> central executive <-> phonological loop
visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop are referred to as "slave system" to
central executive
phonological loop
consists of phonological store and articulatory rehearsal system
phonological store
holds phonological representations for brief period of time
articulatory rehearsal system
enables us to rehears materials to prolong their stay in phonological
store
overtly or covertly
can turn visual material into auditory material
words for examples
visuospatial sketchpad
temporarily maintains and manipulates visuospatial information
allows us to form visual images, manipulate then, turning words into images
central executive
determines what the slave systems should be doing at any given time
o tests of the model
similar sound errors are prevalent
people will mistake similar sounding words more often than visually similar letters
simultaneous visual and auditory stimulation leads to reduced memory overall
remember letters on a page while repeating sounds over and over
working memory relies on a speech-like mode of representation
pronunciation time of words is the main factor of memory span
word length effect holds true for visual stimulation
word-length effect - length of the word
phonological loop explains deficit in working memory
people who have lost their ability to control overt speech, but still have inner
speech and working memory
individuals with brain damage that impairs central rehearsal show poor memory
span
central executive system
two contrasting thoughts
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